Working papers


  1. Zambia’s Employment Outlook: Diversification, Formalization and Education

    26 April 2017

    This paper is an update of a previous ILO paper. It seeks to inform the forthcoming formulation of Zambia’s Seventh National Development Framework for 2017–21. Its main objective is to assess whether there has been a change in the dynamics and characteristics of the labour market and employment over the period 2012–14, by using newly available data on the labour force.

  2. South Africa: Case study on working time organization and its effects in the health services sector

    21 March 2017

    The present working paper explores the complex issues around working time organization and their effects in the health services sector in South Africa. It is one of the products of a research initiative jointly carried out by the ILO Working Conditions and Equality Department (WORKQUALITY) and the ILO Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR), in follow-up to the Conclusions of the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Working Time Arrangements (2011). The research initiative aimed to develop a better understanding on how contemporary working time arrangements function in specific sectors and for different types of workers with the main objective of identifying aspects where improvements in working time arrangements and related practices can better meet both workers’ needs and organizational requirements.

  3. Wastewater and jobs: The Decent Work approach to reducing untreated wastewater

    21 March 2017

    This working paper discusses the potential of investments of wastewater and how they impact productivity, livelihoods, job creation, skills needs, occupational safety and health, and women’s employment. It further identifies the respective roles of the public and private sectors and of cooperatives.

  4. Social Finance for Social Economy

    20 February 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 67

  5. The Social Dimensions of Development Finance in Asia and the Pacific Results of a survey among ADFIAP members

    20 February 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 71

  6. The Social Dimensions of Development Finance in Africa - Results of a survey among AADFI members

    20 February 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 70

  7. Rural teachers in Africa: a report for ILO

    08 February 2017

    Lack of access to education in rural areas is one of the main development challenges in education. Evidence shows that primary school enrolment rates in rural areas lag behind urban rates in most developing countries. In rural areas, learning outcomes are lower, and completion rates for girls lag behind those in urban areas. Teacher quality is lower, pupil-to-teacher ratios are higher, and teacher retention and teacher absenteeism are larger problems. This paper examines African responses to the rural teacher challenge, and highlights good practices and approaches aimed at fostering motivated and qualified teachers for rural areas.

  8. Macroeconomic policy, employment and decent work in India

    19 January 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 205

  9. The role of labour market and sectoral policies in promoting more and better jobs in low middle income countries: Issues, evidence and policy options: The case of India

    19 January 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 206

  10. Report on temporary employment agencies and temporary agency work

    17 January 2017

    This report provides an overview of the regulation of temporary agency work in 13 EU Member States, and examines both national and supranational rules shaping temporary work relations in those countries.