This book is an initial effort towards systematising experiences involving the application and development of new training approaches. It presents a systematic approach from three perspectives. The first of these is the trend towards organising national qualifications frameworks, genuine national systems of reference for competencies at all levels, along with definitions of performance areas and mechanisms to facilitate labour mobility. The second perspective synthesises the increasing interest in key competencies, which are competencies that allow the worker to perform in a wide spectrum of labour areas. The third perspective has to do with the development of procedures for the recognition and certification of labour competencies.