As might be expected from its universal reach, the sector is highly heterogeneous, with considerable differences between wholesale and retail firms, although in many countries an enterprise’s operations may cover both divisions of commerce. Wide differences also exist among retailers, depending on firms’ competitive strategies and on the subsector within which they operate, for instance whether they are department stores, specialty, or discount stores. The structure and functioning of the sector also vary greatly between countries, according to such factors as living standards, consumption and purchasing habits of the population, and legal regulations on the size of firms, shop-opening hours, and consumer protection. Commerce is also increasingly globalized and concentrated, with a high proportion of commerce companies ranked among the Fortune Global 500 in terms of sales turnover and number of employees.
ILO work in the sector in recent years has focussed on human resource implications of globalization and restructuring; on the employment impact of mergers and acquisitions; on the social and labour implications of advanced retail technologies; on skills development requirements for the sector and its workers; and on the needs of older workers in a changing retail environment.
To cope with labour shortages, retailers will have to hire greater numbers of older workers, says ILO report
20 September 2011
20 September 2011
Technical meeting on digitalization in the retail sector as an engine for economic recovery and decent work
Geneva, 25-29 September 2023
Global Dialogue Forum on Employment Relationships in Retail Commerce: Their impact on Decent Work and Competitiveness
(22-23 April 2015)
Global Dialogue Forum on the Needs of Older Workers in relation to Changing Work Processes and the Working Environment in Retail Commerce
(21-22 September 2011)
- Statistical profile of the wholesale and retail trade sector
- Mapping practices, initiatives and policies around the circular economy and emerging services in the retail sector
- Commerce - Recent developments
- Commerce - Employment
- Commerce - Social dialogue