Cluster and Productive Development Policies in the Autonomous Community of the Basque. Country. Lessons for Latin America and the Caribbean. (ILO Technical Reports, 2016/3).

Outcomes in the area of innovation have been even more impressive: R&D spending as a percentage of GDP rose from less than 0.06 per cent in the early 1980s to more than two per cent in 2011, slightly above the EU average (Crespi et al 2014).

The paper is organized in six sections, including the introduction. The second section presents a brief summary of the economic transformation of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. It describes some of the ACBC’s most important characteristics, the most significant economic crises it has faced, and trends in some of its main economic and social indicators from the 1980s to 2014.