A report providing detailed information on the performance of a national social protection system as well as on the extent of coverage and exclusion from social protection. In an internationally comparable way, a SPER provides information about the structure and level of total social expenditure and establishes indicators of system performance with respect to its effectiveness , efficiency and the adequacy of benefit levels. [ref. 8030]
Table of factors showing the evolution of the salary by age of an individual over his/her career. [ref. 8030]
Financial system for pensions under which contribution rates are increased throughout the life cycle of a pension scheme on a "step-by-step" basis (where the duration of the individual step is called the period of equilibrium). In practice the contribution rate is calculated for a defined period of years, often ranging from ten to 25 years, with the objective of equating , at the end of the period , the income from contributions and the investment income to expenditure on benefits and administration. [ref. 8030]
A distinct body of rules, supported by one or more institutional units (schemes are not themselves institutional units, as one institution may administer more than one scheme) governing the provision of social protection benefits and their financing. [ref. 6622]
Refers to the persons actually served by a health facility. The scope or radius of a health facility is to be distinguished from its catchment area (or administrative area), within which it is responsible for administering curative, preventive and promotional health care.
Example: In theory, a district health centre covers all the inhabitants of the villages and hamlets in the district. In practice, the inhabitants actually served by the centre make up only part of the total population of the district and/or sometimes extend beyond its limits, owing mainly to geographic factors and to users' perception of the health centre. [ref. 144]
Market on which financial instruments are being traded after issuance on the primary market. In terms of turnover /capitalization the secondary market usually largely dominates the primary market. [ref. 8030]
Person who performs some work for profit or family gain (in cash or in-kind) but is not in paid employment. [ref. 6622]
Types of benefit that are aimed at replacing earned income in case of a temporary loss of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity or unemployment. [ref. 6622]
See also: long-term benefits
Methodologically consistent compilation of the revenues and expenditures of a country's social protection system. Used in social budgeting. [ILO,ISSA,630]
See: European System of Integrated Protection Statistics (ESSPROS)
Social security benefits that are conditional on the level of income of recipient, i.e. are means-tested or based on similar forms of targeting (e.g. proxy means test, geographical targeting), are generally called social assistance. They are generally a device to alleviate/reduce poverty. Benefits can be delivered in cash or in kind. “Conditional” social assistance schemes require beneficiaries (and/or their relatives or families), in addition to other conditions, to participate in prescribed public programmes (e.g. specified health or educational programmes). In recent years, schemes of this type have become known as conditional cash transfer (CCT) schemes. Social assistance schemes are usually tax-financed and do not require a direct contribution from beneficiaries or their employers as a condition of entitlement to receive relevant benefits. [ref.23091]
Graphical presentation of the minimum income guaranteed by the State to each citizen through the social assistance scheme. Usually lower than the poverty line. [ref. 8030]
Example: The fact that members know each other and live in close proximity to one another helps to limit fraud and abuse, as well as to reduce the unjustified consumption of health care. [ILO-STEP, 144]
Cash and in-kind transfers paid by state or public organizations or agreed upon through collective bargaining on "social" grounds. Transfers include cash benefits such as pensions, employment injury benefits, short-term cash benefits (sickness and maternity benefits, unemployment benefits) as well as benefits in kind such as health services and basic social assistance. Tax exemptions for social reasons are usually considered part of social expenditure; however, estimating the amount of tax forgone is difficult. [ILO,ISSA,2004,8030].
Total social expenditure in a country expressed as a percentage of GDP. [ILO,ISSA,2004,8030].
An organized social group that carries out actions to benefit its members and society in general.
Examples: Associations of individuals, trade unions, trade union federations, groupings, mutual organizations, cooperatives, etc. [réf. 144]
The term “social protection” is used to mean protection provided by social security systems in the case of social risks and needs. Social protection is often interpreted as having a broader character than social security (including, in particular, protection provided between members of the family or members of a local community). It is also used in some contexts with a narrower meaning than social security (understood as comprising only measures addressed to the poorest, most vulnerable or excluded members of society). Thus, unfortunately, in many contexts the terms “social security” and “social protection” are used interchangeably. [ref.23091]
The “Social Protection Floor” (SPF) is a basic set of social rights, services and facilities that every person should enjoy.
The United Nations suggests that a social protection floor could consist of two main elements that help to realize human rights:
- services: geographical and financial access to essential services such as water and sanitation, health, and education;
- transfers: a basic set of essential social transfers, in cash or in kind, to provide minimum income security and access to essential services, including health care. [Ref. 21960]
The notion of social security covers all measures providing benefits, whether in cash or in kind, to secure protection, inter alia, from:
- lack of work-related income (or insufficient income) caused by sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, old age, or death of a family member;
- lack of access or unaffordable access to health care;
- insufficient family support, particularly for children and adult dependants;
- general poverty and social exclusion.
Social security schemes can be of a contributory (social insurance) or non-contributory nature. [ref.23091]
Social transfers represent a transfer from one group in a society to another (e.g. from the active age groups to the old) either in cash or in kind (access to goods and social services). The recipients qualify because they have earned entitlements through fulfilling obligations (e.g. paying contributions) and/or meeting certain social or behavioural conditions (e.g. being sick; being poor; carrying out public works). In recent years, this term has been used to describe schemes for all residents that provide benefits under the single condition of residence (universal cash transfers) or social assistance schemes that require additional behavioural conditions as prerequisites (conditional cash transfers). [ref.23091]
Financial investment where social, environmental and/or ethical considerations are taken into account in the selection, retention and realization of investment, and the responsible use of rights (such as voting rights) attaching to investments. [ILO,ISSA,2004,8030].
Synonym: specialist service
A mathematical model in which the representation of a given phenomenon is expressed in terms of probabilities. The stochastic model is used to derive an estimate of the expected value of a random variable and a confidence interval for this variable. [ref. 776]
See also: deterministic model
A formal financial market most prominently trading equity (shares) and other financial instruments issued by companies. [ILO,ISSA,2004,8030].
Note: Oversight may also be carried out by an external body: commissioner of audits, external auditor, etc. [ILO-STEP, 144]
An optional scheme that assumes responsibility for health expenses not covered by social security schemes. Supplementary health insurance is organized at private initiative, most often by a mutual organization or insurance company. [ref. 144]
Social protection schemes that top up cash benefits granted by the basic scheme, or extend the coverage of the basic scheme, or replace the basic scheme where conditions for entitlement to the basic scheme are not fulfilled. [ILO,694].
Ratio defined as the number of beneficiaries over the number of employed contributors in a given system.In pension schemes especially this ratio must not be confused with the old-age dependency ratio calculated on overall population developments (see demographic ratio). System dependency ratios and population-based dependency ratios may differ significantly. [ILO,ISSA,2004,8030]