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feasibility study   étude de faisabilité  

The first step in any project aimed at setting up or further developing a health micro-insurance scheme. Its objectives are to: (1) verify the relevance of the future health micro-insurance scheme, that is, to ensure that it offers a suitable response to the problems expressed and takes into account the particular context under consideration; (2) define the characteristics of the future scheme that would both ensure the scheme's viability and encourage its development; (3) describe an initial situation and use it for the subsequent evaluation of the scheme's impact on the health context and on access to health care. [ref. 144]

federation of schemes   fédération de systèmes  

An association of several schemes or unions of health micro-insurance schemes. Federations often assume the role of representing the schemes and promoting social protection. [ref. 144]

See also: union of health micro-insurance schemes

fee-for-service payment   paiement à l'acte  

A method of payment in which the health care provider is paid for each health service delivered and covered by the health micro-insurance scheme. [ref. 144]

See also: methods of payment

financial assets   avoirs financiers   activos financieros

Financial assets area means of payment and financial claims, including economic assets close to financial claims in nature. They comprise all items open to trade on financial markets, especially monetary gold, special drawing rights, currency, shares, bonds, and other instruments. [ref. 8030]

financial equilibrium   équilibre financier   equilibrio financiero

A scheme is in financial equilibrium if the present value of all future expenditure is equal to the present value of all future income of the scheme plus the initial reserve at a given point in time. [ref. 8030]

financial equivalence (collective)   [FR: nd]   equivalencia financiera (colectiva)

A rule requiring that at any point in time the total present value of all expected future expenditure of the social protection scheme should be equal to the present value of all future income of the scheme (plus the initial reserve at the respective point in time, if applicable). [ref. 8030]

financial instruments   instruments financiers   instrumentos financieros

Summary expression for all categories of financial assets traded on financial markets. One normally distinguishes between equities, debt instruments, entitlements (rights), options, futures and other (miscellaneous) instruments. These categories can further be broken down into groups (e.g. "equity" is made of shares, preferred shares, others) and attributes (e.g. "equity" can have the following attributes: voting right, ownership, transfer restrictions, others). [ref. 8030]

financial investments   investissements financiers   inversiones financieras

Investments in instruments traded on the financial markets, e.g. buying shares or bonds, putting money into a savings account or leaving money in a standard giro-deposit. [ref. 8030]

financial market   marché financier   mercado financiero

The formal or virtual meeting point between units enjoying a financial surplus ("surplus units") and units experiencing a financial deficit ("deficit units"). [ref. 8030]

financial solidarity rule   [FR: nd]   regla de la solidaridad financiera

Rule requiring that contributions or taxes for the financing of social benefits be charged on the basis of the members' ability to pay, regardless of their risks or circumstances (e.g. health impairments or having eligible dependants). In social insurance schemes this principle is generally embodied in uniform contribution rates charged as a fixed percentage of individual insurable earnings. In the case of tax-financed benefits, the rule applies as long as the system of income taxation is progressive. [ref. 8030]

financing system   [FR: nd]   sistema financiero

Systemic arrangement for raising the resources necessary to meet the financial obligations of a scheme. A financing system is defined as a set of legal provisions aimed at ensuring that at each point of a scheme's life cycle the amount of expenditure is matched by equal and available financial resources – in other words, that the scheme is in financial equilibrium. [ref. 8030]

fiscal space   marge de manoeuvre budgétaire   espacio fiscal

The availability of budgetary room that allows a government to provide resources for a desired purpose without any prejudice to the sustainability of a government’s financial position. [Heller, 2005 cited in ref. 23091]

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fixed assets   [FR: nd]   activos fijos

See: produced assets, non-produced assets


fixed capital   capital fixe  

The value of a fixed asset to its owner at any point of time is determined by the present value of the future rentals that can be expected over its remaining service life. The sum of values of all economic fixed assets of an economy is called its fixed capital (capital stock). Fixed assets are entities over which ownership rights are enforced either individually or collectively, and from which economic benefits my be derived by their owners by holding or using them over a period of time. The level and quality of the fixed capital co-determines the level and quality of an economy's output. [ref. 8022, see note]


flat-rate benefit   forfait  

A benefit in which 100 per cent of health expenses are covered, up to a prescribed limit, which is expressed in monetary units. (It should be noted that the use of flat-rate benefits in insurance differs from their use in other economic contexts. An insurance scheme cannot reimburse more than the amount actually spent by the beneficiary, such as in the case where a flat-rate travel allowance is granted independently of actual expenses.) The flat-rate benefit can be a maximum amount per prescription, consultation, session, episode of illness, hospital day, period or year. The amount of the flat-rate benefit is determined in advance and is independent of the expenses actually incurred by the patient. The use of flat-rate benefits helps to limit the expenses of the health micro-insurance scheme and to protect against catastrophic claims, which, owing to their exorbitant cost, could bankrupt the scheme.

Example: A "Consultations" benefit covers 100 per cent of expenses up to a maximum limit of 600 Monetary Units (MUs) per consultation. If the consultation fee is 500 MUs (<600 MUs), the scheme covers 100 per cent of expenses, or 500 MUs, and the member pays nothing. If the consultation fee is 800 MUs (>600 MUs), the scheme covers the maximum amount, or 600 MUs, and the member pays the difference between the consultation fee and the benefit, or 200 MUs.

Note: Some health micro-insurance schemes utilize the term "flat-rate benefit" when the maximum coverage is low - that is, far below the average cost of the health service - and the term "maximum benefit" when, on the contrary, it is relatively high. These two notions are nevertheless equivalent from the technical standpoint. [ref. 144]

Synonym: maximum benefit

formal sector   secteur formel   sector formal

Economic sector where inhabitants' socio-economic activities are regulated and protected by formal societal institutions. In its functioning the formal sector is often closely interlinked with the informal sector. The vast majority of the world's population is excluded from the formal sector. [ref. 8030]

frequency   fréquence  

The average number of cases of illness or utilization of a health service by a particular segment of the population over the course of a year. [ref. 144]

frequentation (rate)   fréquentation (taux de ~)  

An indicator that measures access to a health facility by the inhabitants of its catchment area. The frequentation rate is equal to the ratio of the number of new cases to the number of inhabitants. New cases are new episodes of illness or new pregnancies "seen" by the staff of the health facility for the first time. If a patient must return one or more times to undergo treatment in connection with a single episode of illness or a single pregnancy, these new visits are counted as old cases and are not taken into account in calculating the frequency rate. However, if a member uses a health facility 5 times over the course of a year for 5 different episodes of illness, all 5 visits must be counted. [ref. 144]

full funding   capitalisation (par ~ entière)   financiación completa (capitalización plena)

Financial system under which the objective is to raise reserves equal to the amount of scheme liabilities or the annual benefit expenditure. [ref. 8030]

funding ratio   coefficient de financement   ratio de financiación

The ratio of the amount of reserves to the amount of actuarial liability under a scheme. [ref. 8030]