UN Women - ILO Policy Tool

Gendered employment analysis and policy recommendations in Ethiopia

Evidence from Hawassa and Yirgalem Intergrated Industrial Parks

The main objective of the study was to identify specific needs and barriers affecting women’s employment in the garment and agro-processing subsectors in the Hawassa (HIP) and Yirgalem (YIAIP) Integrated Industrial Parks to inform sectoral and industrial policy options that could address gender-based discrimination.

Gender-based horizontal and vertical segregation appears to be linked to both explicit and implicit constraints that limit women’s participation in the labour market.

Women are not only under-represented in paid employment, they also work shorter hours in paid employment compared to men due to time constraints related to unpaid domestic and family care responsibilities.

Women are largely under-represented in higher-level occupations and over-represented in low-skill, low-productivity and low-paid occupations with limited opportunities for promotion and career progression.

After identifying the key barriers to women’s employment, intervention areas are suggested which are organized in seven pillars. These comprise policy and regulatory measures, competence and skills building, awareness raising, wages and incentives, support centres and tangible commitment, facilities and coordination, and social dialogue.