Youth Employment and Migration: Knowledge sharing activity: good practices

  • Albania: Territorial Youth Employment Pact
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Centres for information, counselling and training
  • China: Life skills training for young migrants
  • Costa Rica: Punto E one-stop-shop for employment, employability and entrepreneurship
  • Ecuador: Inter-institutional coordination table for youth
  • Honduras: Revolving fund for young entrepreneurs
  • Nicaragua: Revolving fund for young entrepreneurs
  • Paraguay: National table for the creation of youth employment (MEJ)
  • Peru: SIG-E. (Sistema de informacion geografica para emprendedores)
  • The Philippines: Special Program for the Employment of Students
  • Serbia: Integrated employment and social service delivery
  • Tunisia: Public/Private Partnership Souk At-tanmia
  • Turkey: National youth employment action plan (NYEAP)

Albania: Territorial Youth Employment Pact

The Territorial Employment Pact (TEP) represents an institutional innovation based on negotiated planning, where different actors at the local level (local authorities, public employment services, business association, trade unions, cultural and environmental associations, professional bodies, financial institutions, private enterprises) assume complimentary roles and responsibilities in the achievement of youth employment objectives. Regional Employment Boards identify local youth employment needs, design interventions to promote the generation of youth employment and/or the shifting of informal young workers to the formal economy, and mobilize financial resources.

The TEP in the Kukes Region established six service lines to ease the transition to the formal economy: i) entrepreneurship and business advisory services with a particular focus on women; ii) skills training grants; iii) access to credit opportunities; iv) subsidised employment; v) organisation building and vi) regulatory environment. Over 40 partners signed the Kukes TEP, committing to the implementation of the above service lines. By the end of the JP, over 900 youth had benefitted from the TEP interventions and the experience was being replicated in other two regions of Albania.

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Centres for information, counselling and training

The joint programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina established 16 information, counselling and training (CISO) Centres in the Bosnian
Public Employment Services to provide youth aged 15 to 30 years old with: Information on the labour market, education and training opportunities and regular migration: This service is provided both face-to-face and through Face book; Training on core employability and life skills, how to write a curriculum vitae, preparation to
job interviews, migration, information technology and foreign languages; Group and individual employment counselling services; individual employment planning. Six of the CISO Centres have been included in the organizational chart of the Public Employment Services and all costs related to their operations are being covered by public funds. The remaining 10 Centres are expected to be taken over by the local employment offices in 2013.

China: Life skills training for young migrants

The rural-urban development gap in China has encouraged millions of rural migrants to seek urban employment opportunities. In 2010, young migrant workers below 30
years old accounted for 58% (85 million individuals) of all rural migrants who moved to urban areas. Most young migrants can only find manual jobs, often under exploitative conditions. Young people most vulnerable to marginalization are out-of-school rural youths and low-skilled young migrants. Young migrants typically leave home at a young age, unprepared to handle the challenges of adulthood, of work and of living in the city.

The China’s joint programme developed an integrated Life Skills Training Package to prevent young migrant workers from unsafe migration and support them in adapting to city life. The Package was integrated in both short-term programmes for pre-departure training and regular school/vocational training centre courses.

During the project period, 5,844 potential and actual young migrant workers in sending and receiving areas participated to life skills training courses provided by about 1,000 trainers and peer-educators trained by the joint programme. Training courses have enabled rural youths and young urban migrants to better understand their rights and how to protect them. Students found it useful and interesting to learn what city life is about, how to protect themselves in the city and at work, how to find and retain a decent job, and how to deal with all kinds of relationships.

Costa Rica: Punto E one-stop-shop for employment, employability and entrepreneurship

This initiatives served to integrate the delivery of social services provided by a number of public authorities and organizations to vulnerable youth. An individual development plan explores the needs of the young individual and set an assistance strategy to lead to the final objective: employment, employability or entrepreneurship. A profiling system determines the degree of vulnerability of each individual for priority intervention.

The system operates around three pillars: young people (organization, participation, ownership); institutions (sensitization, maximization of resources, concerted planning targeting youth) and local government (design of social and education strategies, embedding of social inclusion in strategic planning and integration of the service in municipal structures).

To date, over 3,200 young persons have compiled the information fiche required to determine their vulnerability index (63% young women and 37% young men). Service delivery encompasses four steps: i) Individual development plan; ii) motivation of the young person to access available services; iii) delivery of the agreed services; iv) implementation of the individual development plan.


Ecuador: Inter-institutional coordination table for youth

This initiative is aimed at coordinating the interventions of a number of actors with responsibility on youth issues. The coordination mechanism offers a space for young people, public institutions and civil society organizations to plan strategically. Activities are based on the respective mandates of the actors involved in the coordination mechanisms and are aimed at providing coherent responses to youth needs, while minimizing the duplication of efforts. Actions targeting youth revolve around three areas : training (on information technology, rights and youth voices), good use of free time and youth participation.

To date 1,200 young people have participated in the three target provinces to the activities initiated under the aegis of the coordination mechanisms. The initiative has little financial costs, as most of the resources required related to decision-making and operational planning. The key features of the initiative can be summarised as follow. i) work jointly, ii) do not duplicate efforts; iii) plan coherently; iv) participation, and v) relevance to the strengthening of
youth processes.

Honduras: Revolving fund for young entrepreneurs

The YEM Joint Programme in Honduras promoted a revolving fund targeting poor youth who have little access to mainstreamed forms of credit. The fund provided seed money for young people who have a product that can be improved and/or marketed. The partners are the mayors of the municipalities, credit cooperatives, saving banks and local civil society organizations.

The operations of the fund are sustainable as they are included in the workplan of the partners that provide the necessary resources. The joint programme also built the capacity of the partners to manage the revolving fund.


Nicaragua: Revolving fund for young entrepreneurs

To improve the access to finance for young entrepreneurs aged 15 to 24 in Nicaragua, the Joint Programme established a revolving fund (totalling US$986,825) as well as the
resources for seed grants (US$ 242,000). These funds are managed through the Bank “Produzcamos”, appointed by the Government.

The funds put at disposition provide credit and seed grants to cooperatives established by young people (minimum 10 employees) and micro-enterprises (2 to 5 employees). The interest rate applied to loans is 8% per year (very low compared to the commercial rates) with repayment spread over 30 months. Youth cooperatives can receive loans
up to US$10,000, while the ceiling for micro-enterprises is US$5,000. To date, 10 cooperatives have been financed and 130 micro-enterprises. The responsibility for the management of the credit facility has been taken over by INJUVE (Instituto Nicaragüense de la Juventud) with the support of the Ministry of Household Economy.

Paraguay: National table for the creation of youth employment (MEJ)

Youth employment in Paraguay is a pressing challenge: over 62% of the population is less than 30 years of age and 49% of these are engaged in the labour market under precarious conditions, with no access to social security.

The main objective of this initiative was to design and implement a youth employment policy geared to increase decent work opportunities for youth by means of legislative actions, re-design of implementing programmes, proposal for new measures and social dialogue.

The Table for Youth Employment (MEJ) was established by decree in 2008 as an interinstitutional entity charged with the planning and coordination of youth employment policies. It comprises 23 public and private institutions, representatives of employers’ and workers’ organizations and members of civil society organizations. To date more than 9,000 young persons have benefitted from the pilot programmes developed by the MEJ.

Peru: SIG-E. (Sistema de informacion geografica para emprendedores)

The SIG-E is a geographical information technology system that provides market analysis information in real time to young potential entrepreneurs. The software compiles the information collected through the Census of establishments (that covers both formal and informal enterprises) and the Census of the population.

The system provides information (address, number of employees, turnover, average monthly sales and so on) by type of business and by geographical area. The information can be extracted through the internet, but is also provided face-to-face by a specific department of the Ministry of Labour. Internet access coverage is approximately 5,000 youth per months at national level, while information on face-to-face users is currently being elaborated. The information system is maintained by the national statistical office. Its overall cost is approximately US$ 30,000.

The Philippines: Special Program for the Employment of Students

The high level of youth unemployment in the country contributes to high rates of internal and overseas migration, with 44% of young Filipinos living away from home. Young people aged 15 to 24 years old account for 10.7% of the total number of Filipino migrants.

While migration brings significant economic benefits, it also has social costs, particularly to children living apart
from one or both parents (approximately 27% of all children). Children of migrant workers tend to have higher school dropout rates and a diminishing interest in finishing school, working, or building a career. Hence, this initiative of the Joint Programme is aimed at helping poor, but deserving, students continue their education by encouraging their employment though incentives granted to employers. Employers pay only 60% of the salary, while the remaining 40% is provided by the Department of Labour and Employment.

The programme targets young people 15-24 years old, allowing them to remain (or return) to school thus acquiring higher skills and enhancing their future employment opportunities.


Serbia: Integrated employment and social service delivery

One of the challenges faced by the Serbian Government is the development of a more employment-friendly social protection systems targeting the needs of the most at risk groups of the youth population.

This intervention, specifically, targets the separation (and fragmentation) of social and employment service delivery at national and local level and promotes the development of a whole-system approach, where a single caseworker coordinates the services provided by different agencies to young clients.

The target group is young people 15 to 24 years of age who are single parents, social assistance beneficiaries, about to leave institutional care, victims of domestic violence and human trafficking, persons living with a disability, former drug addicts and ethnic minorities. The integrated service delivery approach include a profiling system to detect the risk factors the young person is exposed to; referral to the public service providers most suited to address the individual barriers faced (education, employment, social integration) as well as the provision of employment programmes to ease the transition to work and motivation coaching. To date 300 youth have been shifted from welfare to work at a cost of US$ 1,800 approximately for young person treated.

Tunisia: Public/Private Partnership Souk At-tanmia

The Souk –Attanmia (Development Market) is an innovative pilot partnership between financial development institutions and various Tunisian public, private and non for profit stakeholders (19 partners) seeking to provide an effective and immediate response to the youth employment challenge.

The approach consists of identifying, financing and supporting projects aimed at developing talent, innovation and a spirit of entrepreneurship, so as to build momentum to generate jobs and income in all regions of Tunisia. Through a coordinated call for proposals, the partners identify projects based on a set of selection criteria, including: (i) the capacity to generate jobs; (ii) their impact in reducing regional and social disparities; (iii) their innovative character; and (iv) project sustainability. Thereafter, funds are mobilized and small grants allocated (from US$5,000 to US$15,000).

The partnership also comprise a programme to monitor and mentor the beneficiaries throughout the period of setting up their projects, including skills transfer from the partners to the initiative. Tunisian banks are involved in all phases of the Partnership. Lending practices encourage the personal contribution of developers, with a view to produce a leverage effect.

Turkey: National youth employment action plan (NYEAP)

The National Youth Employment Action Plan (2011-2015) is the first official policy document in the history of Turkey entirely focused on youth employment. It aims to promote decent work opportunities for 12 million young women and men aged 15-24 years old through concrete actions coordinated by the Public Employment Service (ISKUR) in collaboration with other relevant government agencies and the social partners.

The Plan was developed by a National Technical Team (NTT) comprising representatives of relevant government agencies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, academics and representatives of young people. The NYEAP is the product of extensive social dialogue where all decisions were taken by consensus.