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El Salvador
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2010    

Références
  • Labour Code [LC], 1972, as last amended by Legislative Decree No 839 of March 2009 (Codigo de Trabajo, available only in Spanish)
    Date: 26 Mar 2009; voir le site internet »
  • The Constitution of El Salvador, 1983, Titlle II, Chapter II, Section II, as last amended in May 2009 (Constitución de la República de El Salvador - in Spanish only)
    Date: 27 May 2009; voir le site internet »
  • Decree No. 888 of 2 May 2000 with regard to equal opportunities for persons with disabilities (Ley de equiparación de oportunidades para las personas con discapacidad - in Spanish only)
    Date: 02 May 2000; voir le site internet »
  • Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration Act ordered by Decree No 914 of July 2002 (Ley de Mediación, Conciliación y Arbitraje – available only in Spanish).
    Date: 11 Jul 2002; voir le site internet »
  • Civil Service Act, 1961, as last amended by Legislative Decree No. 10 of May 2009 (Ley de Servicio Civil – available only in Spanish)
    Date: 10 May 2009; voir le site internet »
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 LC: all employment relationships between employers and workers are regulated by the LC, including employment relationship between the State, Municipalities and Official Autonomous or Semi- Autonomous Institutions and their employees. However, LC does not apply when the employment relationship between State, Municipalities and Official Autonomous or Semi- Autonomous Institutions and their servants is of a public nature and arises from an administrative act or a contract concluded for the performance of technical or professional services.

    For civil and public servants see Civil Service Act.

Types de contrats de travail - 2010    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 30 jour(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 28 LC: maximum 30 days. Within this period either party can terminate the contract without cause.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • See art . 25-27 LC.
      The LC authorizes contracts concluded for a limited (and specified) term (art. 25 LC) and contracts concluded to perform a specific work (art. 26 LC).
      According to art. 25 LC, contracts with a limited duration can only be concluded to perform temporary or casual work.
      The term of the contract and objective circumstances that justify the use of such temporary employment contract must be indicated in writing in the contract (art. 23(4) LC)
      Art. 27 LC stipulates that a FTC can be concluded in order to replace a worker whose contract is temporarily suspended.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2010    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 60 LC: Upon termination of employment the employer shall issue a certificate which shall include the reasons for termination if the employee so requests.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : motifs économiques; conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur
Remarks:
  • *Article 55 LC: It is legally presumed that a worker is dismissed without just cause, except for those causes listed in the law.

    *Art. 50 LC provides for a limited list of justified grounds for dismissals which relate mainly to the worker's conduct and capacity.
    The employer can legally terminate (without notice) the contract under the following grounds:
    - if the worker deceived the employer by means of false letters of recommendation or certificates when the contract was concluded. This ground ceases to be operative after the worker has completed 30 day's employment;
    - due to the worker's repeated negligence;
    - if the employer lost confidence in an employee exercising managerial surveillance or similar functions;
    - if the worker reveals manufacturing secrets or communicates administrative matters to the detriment of the undertaking;
    - if the worker commits serious acts of immorality inside the undertaking or while performing work outside the workplace
    - if the worker commits disrespectful acts against the employer or his/her relatives, except in the case of provocation
    - if the workers commits acts causing serious disruption to the company's activity;
    - if the worker (either intentionally or by negligence) seriously endangers the safety or operation of the establishment, or the persons therein safety or activity of the workers, or their health;
    - if the worker deliberately damages the plant, machinery, tools, work implements, goods or merchandise
    - if the worker is absent from work without any justification for two consecutive working days, or a total of three days within the same months; or
    - If the worker, after imprisonment or pre-trial detention, comes back to work, within three days from the date of release, and s/he committed a crime against the employer or his/her relatives
    - If the worker commits serious breaches of the obligations under the contract of employment
    - In the event of disobedience to the employer (or employer's representative)
    - If the worker drinks alcohol or takes drugs during working time or if s/he works under the effect of alcohol or drugs
    - If the worker does not fulfil his/her obligations under art 24 LC
    * According to art. 51 LC, inefficiency or negligence are not valid reason for dismissal, provided that they are caused by a disease or by a transfer to a superior assignment. In this case, the worker has the right to be reinstated in his/her previous position.
    * According to art. 49 LC, the employment contract shall terminate, following a judicial decision authorizing the dismissal, in case of:
    - closure of all or part of the undertaking or establishment, or final reduction of the activities, resulting from the unprofitably of the business;
    - business closure caused by the exhaustion of the substance exploited by the extractive industry.


Motifs prohibés: grossesse ; congé de matérnité; race; couleur; sexe; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; statut sérologique VIH
Remarks:
  • - The general provision on non-discrimination in employment (art. 30(12) LC) stipulates that employers are not permitted "to establish any distinction, exclusion or preference based on race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin, except in cases provided for by the law aimed at protecting the person of the work".
    - Art. 30(15) LC (inserted by DL N°611 of 2005) prohibits discrimination on the basis of the HIV/AIDS status.
    In addition, the Act on the prevention and control of human immuno-deficiency virus infection (HIV/AIDS) (Legislative Decree No. 588 of 24 October 2001) guarantees the right of "any person living with HIV/AIDS" to obtain employment that does not involve risky contact, and not to be dismissed or forced to accept inferior pay, benefits or conditions on the grounds of his or her illness (art. 5.a).
    - On pregnancy and maternity leave, see art. 113 LC: An employer cannot dismiss a pregnant women by way of de facto dismissal or dismissal following a court's decision during the entire period of pregnancy and until the end of the maternity leave unless the alleged cause for dismissal relates to facts which took place prior to the beginning of pregnancy. Even in such case, the dismissal will only be effective immediately after the end of the maternity leave.
    - Persons with disabilities are entitled to protection against all discrimination (art. 2.1 of Decree No. 888 of 2 May 2000, on equal opportunities for persons with disabilities), and in particular, "to obtain employment and carry on a paid occupation and to be protected from dismissal on grounds of his or her disability" (art. 2.5).
    - On trade union activities, see art. 205(c) LC which prohibits discrimination between workers and retaliatory action based on trade union activities.

    Note that, as expressed in the previous category, El Salvador has a limited list of valid ground for dismissal. That means that although many grounds are not expressly observed as prohibited in the legal text, they are still prohibited by exclusion to art. 55 LC.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité
Remarks:
  • - On pregnancy and maternity leave, see art. 113 LC: An employer cannot dismiss a pregnant women by way of de facto dismissal or dismissal following a court's decision during the entire period of pregnancy and until the end of the maternity leave unless the alleged cause for dismissal relates to facts which took place prior to the beginning of pregnancy. Even in such case, the dismissal will only be effective immediately after the end of the maternity leave.
    - Trade union representatives:
    Previous authorization from the competent authority is required for the dismissal of a worker covered by trade union immunity (Constitution, art. 47, and Labour Code, art. 248). Trade union immunity protects trade union leaders, candidates for election to the union board, workers in the process of establishing or organizing a union and the founding members. This protection is subject to certain conditions with regard to numbers of persons protected and periods of protection which can be increased through collective agreements.
    During the process of establishing the union, protection lasts for not more than 60 days from the date of notification of the administrative authority (art. 248.a) and for the founding members for up to 60 days following registration of the union (art. 214). In the case of trade union representatives, protection lasts for up to one year from the expiry of their mandate and for candidate officers, from one month before the elections take place until one week after the election.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2010    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks:
  • Art. 55 LC: The dismissal must be communicated to the worker by the employer or by his/her representatives, otherwise it is considered null and void, except when a written letter of dismissal signed by the employer or his/her representatives is delivered to the employee.

    However, note art. 60. At the end of any contract, whatever the cause that motivated its termination, the employer must give written notice to the employee expressing: 1) starting and termination date of its work 2) type of work undertaken 3) last salary earned.
    If the worker demands so, it can also include: 4) description of the worker’s efficiency and behaviour 5) reason of termination of contract.
    Note that: it is not the official notification of the worker’s dismissal, it is rather a complementary document to the end of the contract.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Remarks:
  • However, prior authorization from the competent jurisdictional authority is required for the dismissal of a worker covered by trade union immunity (art. 248 LC and 47 of the Constitution).

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Notes / Remarques
There are no statutory notice periods to be observed in the event of dismissal.

Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2010    

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Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
No statutory definition of collective dismissal for economic reasons.

Art. 49The LC foresees termination of employment with no liability on the part of either party in the following cases:
- closure of all or part of the undertaking or establishment, or final reduction of the activities, resulting from the unprofitably of the business and authorized by the competent labour judge.
- business closure caused by the exhaustion of the substance exploited by the extractive industry and authorized by the labour judge.

In addition, the LC (art. 48) provides for termination without judicial intervention in the event of:
- dissolution of the undertaking in case the business has ended, orf an undertaking
- partial or total cessation of activities following bankruptcy , when it has been decided by the Trade Union or the Board of Creditors, and considered fortuitous and not negligent.

With the exception of those reasons, economic reasons are not considered to be a good cause for dismissal. Therefore dismissal based on economic reasons will be treated as de facto dismissal "despido de hecho" and will entail payment of compensation for unjustified dismissal.

Remarks:
  • See art. 48 and 49 LC.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Remarks:
  • However, prior judicial authorization is required in the folllowing cases:
    - closure of all or part of the undertaking or establishment, or final reduction of the activities, resulting from the unprofitably of the business;
    - business closure caused by the exhaustion of the substance exploited by the extractive industry (art. 49 LC).

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2010    

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Notes / Remarques
1) Dismissal with cause (conduct or capacity related): no severance pay See art. 50, 51 and 52 LC which state that there is no employer’s responsibility.
2) De facto dismissal (dismissal without cause): compensation for unjustified dismissal equivalent to 30 day's pay for each year of service (or fraction) with a minimum of 15 days' pay. (Art. 58 LC)
As already indicated, any dismissal for economic reasons which do not fall within the limited categories specified in the LC (see above 'Definition of collective dismissal') will be treated as a 'de facto dismissal' and will therefore entail payment of compensation for unjustified dismissal by the employer.

There is no different compensation depending on the length of tenure

Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2010    

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Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Remarks:
  • Art. 58 LC.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
1) In case of unjustified dismissal (despido de facto) of a worker under a contract of indefinite duration, the employer has to pay a compensation of 30 days' basic wages per year of service or in proportion for any fraction thereof. However, this compensation shall not be less than 15 days' basic wages. No salary exceeding four times the minimum legal daily salary will be considered for the effects of calculating the compensation.
In addition, the employee is entitled to recieve back pay which shall accrue from the date of the complaint until the court decision. However it shall not exceed 35 days' wages (increased by max. 20 days if the case goes to appeal or cassation)


2) When a FTC worker is dismissed without just cause before the expiration of the contract, the employer has pay compensation which shall amount to the wages the worker would have been entitled to until the expiry of the FTC.

Remarks:
  • See art. 58 and 59 LC.
    On back pay, see art. 420 LC.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

Remarks:
  • The Labour Code does not provide for the reinstatement of workers who have been unfairly dismissed.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

Remarks:
  • Only in dismissals that lead to judicial procedure. Art. 385 LC.

Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

Remarks:
  • Art. 369 LC - "los jueces laborales" in first instance and "las Cámaras de lo Laboral" in second instance.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

Remarks:
  • Arbitration is only foreseen for the settlement of collective disputes. due to economic or interest reasons. (Art. 480 and 500-514 LC).

    Note that art. 24 Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration Act excludes labour disputes from its scope of application.

Information supplémentaire - 2010    

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