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Russie, Fédération de
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références
  • Labour Code of 2002, last amended 2018 (consolidated text available only in Russian)
    Date: 2018; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Remarks:
  • Article 59 provides that a fixed-term contract may be concluded upon agreement by the worker and the employer in entreprises employing less than 35 workers (or 20 workers in enterprises of retail and services).

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : armée; directeurs
Remarks:
  • Article 11 of the Labour Code

Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Article 70 of the Labor Code: the probationary period cannot exceed 3 months for all workers and 6 months for some managers and financial officers.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Article 59 of the Labour Code lists the cases where the use of fixed-term contracts are authorised
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • Article 58 of the Labour Code
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 5 année(s)
    Remarks:
    • Article 58 of the Labour Code

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Article 81 of the Labour Code


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : motifs économiques; conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur
Remarks:
  • Article 81 of the Labour Code


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; race; couleur; sexe; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; âge ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; statut financier ; langue; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • Article 3 of the Labour Code prohibits discrimination at work on several grounds.
    Article 261 of the Labour Code prohibits to dismiss a pregnant worker and provides some protection against dismissals to women workers with children.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs mineurs
Remarks:
  • Article 261 of the Labour Code prohibits to dismiss a pregnant worker except in the event of enterprise liquidation. It also prohibits the dismissal of women with children under three years old, single mother raising a child under fourteen years old (disabled child under eighteen), workers raising those children without a mother except on certain limited grounds ( liquidation and grounds related to the misconduct of the worker).

    Except in the event of enterprise liquidation, workers under 18 can only be dismissed with the authorization of the Labour Inspectorate and the Commission for the rights of minors (art. 269 of the Labour Code).

    Articles 374-376 LC elaborate on the procedure on how to dismiss elected workers’ representatives and provide additional guarantees to them.



Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Article 84-1 of the Labour Code

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Article 180 LC provides that the employees should be notified no less than two months if the reason for the dismissal is liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise.

    Moreover:
    • if a fixed-term contract for a period of up to 2 months is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 3 calendar days for the reasons of expiry of the contract (Article 79 LC) and for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise (Article 292 LC);
    • if a seasonal work contract is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 7 calendar days (Article 296 LC)
    • if the employee is a migrant worker or a stateless person, a notice regarding the termination of the contract for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise reasons must be sent not less than 3 calendar days before the dismissal (Article 327.6 LC)
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 180 of the Labour Code provides on the pay in lieu of notice in case of dismissals for economic reasons.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • Article 82 of the Labour Code: in case of termination of employment for economic reasons or for worker's conduct or performance, an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Article 82 of the Labour Code provides that collective dismissals for economic reasons are to be defined by collective agreements at the branch and/or territorial level.

    In addition to several branch and territorial collective agreements, Council of Ministers' Decree of 1993 No. 99 defines collective dismissals from 50 dismissals upwards within the period of 30 calendar days.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 180 of the Labour Code

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Under Articles 21 and 25 of the Law on Employment, the employer has to inform the public service of employment three months in advance about any expected collective dismissals for economic reasons.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 82 of the Labour Code: the employer must inform the trade union about any expected reduction of the workforce for economic reasons 2 months in advance and 3 months in advance in case of expected collective dismissals for economic reasons.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, pursuant to Article 7.4) of the Law on Employment and Council of Ministers' Decree of 1993 No. 99, the employer's decision on collective dismissals for economic reasons may be suspended by the local authorities up to 6 months, upon proposal of the public service of employment and trade unions to take into account the employment situation at the labour market.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • Article 82 of the Labour Code: an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 179 of the Labour Code "Preferential right to retain the job on reducing the number of staff of the organization":

      On reducing the number of staff, employees having higher qualifications and higher productivity are granted a preferential right to retain the job.

      If employees have equal qualifications and productivity rates the preference is given to:
      - married employees having two or more dependants (disabled members of the family who are dependent on the employee for support or who receive assistance from him which is the only source of means of subsistence for them);
      - employees in whose families there are no other employees having independent earnings;
      - employees who got a maiming in work or a professional disease in this organization;
      - invalids of the Great Patriotic War and invalids of military actions in defending the Motherland;
      - employees sent by the employer to improve their qualifications while continuing their work.

      The collective agreement may stipulate other categories of employees who may be granted the preferential right to retain the post while having equal qualifications and productivity rates with others.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 81 of the Labour Code

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2019    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • Article 178 of the Labour Code: the worker is entitled to a two-week salary severance pay in some cases of dismissals.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Article 178 of the Labour Code: any worker dismissed for economic reasons is entitled to a redundancy pay whose amount is one-month average salary. In addition the worker is entitled to an average salary during three months if the worker applied to the employment agency within two weeks after dismissal and was not placed in a job.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 394 of the Labour Code

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 394 of the Labour Code

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

    Remarks:
    • Article 391 of the Labour Court

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Charge de la preuve: employeur

    Durée de la procédure:

    Remarks:
    • Article 392 of the Labour Code: the worker may bring a complaint about the dismissal to the court within one month after the date of the termination of his or her employment.

      Article 154 of the Code of civil procedure provides that any case on dismissal must be considered within one month.

    Information supplémentaire - 2019    

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