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Indonésie
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues: fonctionnaires; travailleurs domestiques
Remarks:
  • See Art. 150 MA, Chapter XII Termination of Employment: the provisions concerning termination of employment under this act cover termination of employment that happens in a business undertaking which is a legal entity or not, a business undertaking owned by an individual, by a partnership or by a legal entity, either owned by the private sector or by the State, as well as social undertakings and other undertakings which have administrators/officials and employ people by paying them wages or other forms of remuneration.

    Civil servants are covered by specific regulations.


Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 60 MA.
    However, fixed-term contracts cannot stipulate a probation period (art. 58 (1) MA).

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Art. 59 (1) and (2) MA:
      "(1) A work agreement for a specified time can only be made for a certain job, which, because of the type and nature of the job, will finish in a specified time, that is:
      a. Work to be performed and completed at once or work which is temporary by nature;
      b. Work whose completion is estimated time which is not too long and no longer than 3 (three) years;
      c. Seasonal work; or
      d. Work that is related to a new product, a new activity or an additional product that is still in the experimental stage or try-out phase.
      (2) A work agreement for a specified time cannot be made for jobs that are permanent by nature."
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 59 (4) MA: one extension possible.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 36 mois
    Remarks:
    • Art. 52 (4) MA: A fixed term contract can only be concluded for a period of no longer than two years and be
      extended one time that is not longer than one year.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui
Remarks:
  • No express obligation to state the reasons for dismissal. However, according to art. 151 (2) MA: the employer must negotiate directly with the worker (who is not unionized) or, the trade union he belongs to about his intention to carry out the dismissal.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur; motifs économiques; capacité du travailleur
Remarks:
  • See:
    * Art. 168 MA: absence from work for more than 5 days without justified reason,
    * Art. 161 MA: violation of the provisions specified in the work agreement, the company regulations or the collective agreement,
    * Art. 160 (3) MA: inability to work for reasons related to legal criminal proceeding,
    * Art. 163, 164 and 165 MA: economic reasons (change of status of the enterprise, closing down due to continuous losses, bankruptcy).
    NOTE: Art. 158 MA (grave wrongdoings) was declared null and void by Constitutional Court Decision No.012/PUU-I/2003.


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; congé de matérnité; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; religion; opinion politique; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap; membres de la famille sur le même lieu de travail; dénoncer des violations; prendre légalement ses congés; remplir des obligations civiques; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • Art. 153 MA


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée
Remarks:
  • See: art. 153 c), g), j) and 172 MA.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks:
  • Before terminating the employment relationship, an employer is required to negotiate with the workers' organization concerned, or with the non-unionised worker directly, with a view to reaching agreement.
    Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Remarks:
  • Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks:
  • Art. 151(2) requires that termination be negotiated.
    Negotiation will involve the worker's representative only if the employee belongs to a trade union (art. 151 (2) MA). If not, the negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Oui

Remarks:
  • Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court will hear the dispute if no agreement was found during the mediation phase.

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks:
  • Art. 151(2) requires that termination be negotiated.
    Negotiation will involve the worker's representative only if the employee belongs to a trade union (art. 151 (2) MA). If not, the negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

Notes / Remarques
The Indonesian termination system is not based on notice but on prior bipartite negotiations and if they fail, on mediation by the administration and eventually judicial settlement.

Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
No definition of collective dismissals.
No specific procedural requirements.

Remarks:
  • See: Art 164 MA allows for termination "because the enterprise has to be closed down due to continual losses for 2 (two) years consecutively or force majeure", (art. 164 (1) MA) and "when the closing down of the enterprise is caused neither by continual losses for 2 (two) years consecutively nor force majeure but because of rationalization" (art. 164 (3) MA).

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks:
  • Art. 151 (2) MA: general rule not specific to economic dismissals.
    Art. 151(2) MA requires that termination be negotiated.
    Negotiation will involve the worker's representative only if the employee belongs to a trade union. If not, the negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks:
  • Bi-partite negotiations between the employer and the employee are compulsory in the event the employee belongs to a trade union (art. 150 (2) MA). For non-unionized workers, the bipartite negotiation will take place between the worker and employer.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Remarks:
  • Art. 151 (3) and 152 MA require that when negotiation fails between parties, decision on the termination will be taken by the institution for the settlement of industrial relations disputes. Since the entry into force of the Act No 2/2004 [IRDSA], the old institutions for the settlement of industrial relations disputes were dismantled and replaced by new mechanisms. As a result, the administration now only acts as a mediator if the parties fail to reach an agreement on the termination. The Industrial Relations Court now sentences in last resort.

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks:
  • Art. 150 (1) MA stipulates that: "the employer, the worker and/or the trade union, and the government must make all efforts to prevent termination of employment".
    According to the explanatory notes attached to the Manpower Act 2003, under the above mentioned article "the phrase make all effort under this subsection refers to positive activities or actions which may eventually prevent termination of employment from happening , including among others, arrangement of working time, saving measures, restructuring or reorganization of working methods, and efforts to develop the worker/labourer".

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Notes / Remarques
There are no specific regulations or additional requirements for collective dismissals. Therefore, notification requirements applicable to individual dismissals remain applicable.

Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2017    

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Indemnité de licenciement:
Remarks:
  • • Under art. 156 of the Manpower Law, termination of the employment relationship gives rise to termination payments that include severance pay and /or long service pay and compensation pay for the entitlements. The amounts provided here correspond to severance pay: one month's wages for each year of service, up to a maximum of nine months' pay. The extent of the termination package depends on the circumstances of termination.

    • In the event the termination on the ground of criminal action, the worker is entitled to long-service pay and compensation pay (Art.160 (7).
    • In the event the termination on the grounds of absence for five consecutive workdays without explanation, the worker is not entitled to any severance pay or long service pay, but he will be entitled for compensation pay and separation money in accordance with the work agreement, company regulation or collective elabour agreement(Art. 168 (3) MA)
    • However, if a worker is terminated on the grounds of violation of the terms of employment, he will be nonetheless entitled to severance pay, long-service pay and compensation pay. (161 (1) MA)

    Calculation of severance pay (Art.156 (2) MA):

    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique: The Manpower Act stipulates that workers shall receive the double severance pay in the following cases:
    - if the business changes and the employer does not wish to retain the employee (Art. 163(2));
    - if the business closes not because of losses for two years nor for force majeure (Art. 164(3))
    _______________
    Art. 163(2) MA: "The entrepreneur may terminate the employment of his or her workers/ labourers in the event of change in [the] status [of the enterprise], merger, fusion, or change in the ownership of the enterprise and the entrepreneur is not willing to accept the workers/ labourers to work in the [new] enterprise [resulting from the change of status, merger, fusion, or ownership change]. If this happens, the worker/ labourer shall be entitled to severance pay twice the amount of severance pay stipulated under subsection (2) of Article 156, reward pay for period of employment 1 (one) time the amount stipulated under subsection (3) of Article 156, and compensation pay for entitlements that have not been used according to what is stipulated under subsection (4) of Article 156."
    Art. 164(3) MA: "The entrepreneur may terminate the employment of his or her workers/ labourers because the enterprise has to be closed down and the closing down of the enterprise is caused neither by continual losses for 2 (two) years consecutively nor force majeure but because of rationalization [literal: efficiency]. If this happens, the workers/ labourers shall be entitled to severance pay twice the amount of severance pay stipulated under subsection (2) of Article 156, reward for period of employment pay amounting to 1 (one) time the amount stipulated under subsection (3) of Article 156 and compensation pay for entitlements that have not been used according to what is stipulated under subsection (4) of Article 156."

    Notes / Remarques
    Under art. 156 of the Manpower Law, termination of the employment relationship gives rise to termination payments.

    Severance pay amounts to one month's wages for each year of service, up to a maximum of nine months pay.

    In addition, there is a payment for reward of service (long-period of service) that consists in adding one month's pay for every three years of employment, starting with two months' pay for 3 years, up to a maximum of 10 months' wages for 24 years of service.

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • No compensation foreseen in the MA.
      A ruling of unfair dismissal entails reinstatement. (see art. 170 MA, also art. 153 (2) on dismissal based on prohibited grounds)

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 153 (2) MA: any termination based on prohibited grounds shall be declared null and void. The employer must then reemploy the affected worker.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Pursuant to Act No. 2 of 2004 concerning Industrial relations settlements, the parties must first attempt to settle their dispute trough bipartite negotiations, and if negotiations fail, through conciliation or mediation before the dispute can go to the Industrial Relations Court.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Pursuant to Act No. 2 of 2004 concerning Industrial relations settlements, the Industrial Relation Court is competent if the parties did not reach any agreement through negotiations, conciliation or mediation.

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Pursuant to Act No. 2 of 2004 concerning Industrial relations settlements, the Industrial Relation Court is competent if the parties did not reach any agreement through negotiations, conciliation or mediation.

    Durée de la procédure: 50 jour(s) (légal(e))

    Remarks:
    • The Industrial Relations Court (IRC) must issue a verdict within 50 days as of the date of the first court session (art. 103 IRDSA).
      An appeal can be lodged before the Supreme Court IRC decision within 7 days, which should issue its decision within 20 days (art.115 IRSDA).

      Note that the prior bipartite negotiations and conciliation/mediation shall be carried out within 30 days each.

    Information supplémentaire - 2019    

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