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Rwanda
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; travailleurs agricoles
Remarks:
  • Art. 3 LC:
    - Persons employed under the general statutes for the Rwanda public service or specific statutes are excluded from the LC, except for matters that may be provided for by Prime Minister's orders.
    - In addition, persons dealing with family agricultural, breeding, commercial or industrial activities are excluded from the provisions of the LC, except for those relating to health and safety at the workplace, prohibition of child labour and protection of pregnant or breastfeeding women.
    - Lastly, workers in the informal sector are not covered by the LC, except for issues relating to social security, trade union organizations and health and safety at the workplace.

Notes / Remarques
In 2009, a new Labour Code was adopted. It replaced the 2001 Labour Code.


Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 20 LL: Probation employment or its renewal must be concluded in writing and can only cover a maximum period of six (6) months.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
    Remarks:
    • Art. 15-17 LL.
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any valid reason for the use of FTC.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • Art. 16 LL: Fixed-term contracts can be renewed as many times as agreed upon by the parties.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation on the maximum duration of successive FTCs.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art 30 LL: the written notification of the dismissal must specify the reasons for the dismissal.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : tout motif légitime
Remarks:
  • Art. 30 LL provides that an open-ended contract can always be terminated at the will of either party provided that there are legitimate motives for terminating the contract.
    See also art. 1(12) which defines unfair dismissal as "termination of employment contract by the employer without justifiable reason or observance of procedures established by law".


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; couleur; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; statut financier ; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • The LL does not contain a list of prohibited grounds for dismissal.
    However, it contains a general prohibition of discrimination in work matter.
    Art. 12 LL prohibits direct or indirect discrimination aiming at denying workers the right to equal opportunity or equal treatment especially when the discrimination is
    based upon the following:
    1. Race, color, or origin;
    2. sex, marital status or family responsibilities;
    3. religion, beliefs or political opinions;
    4. social or economic conditions;
    5. country of origin;
    6. disability;
    7. previous, current or future pregnancy;
    8. any other type of discrimination.

    - Art. 114 LL prohibits an employer from relying on trade union membership or activities to take favourable or unfair decisions concerning a worker with regard to benefits and working conditions.

    - Art. 67 LL prohibits the employer from giving notice of dismissal during maternity leave.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée
Remarks:
  • - Women on maternity leave:
    Prohibition to dismiss a woman during maternity leave (art. 67 LL)

    - Workers' representatives:
    In case of an unlauful dismissal, workers' delegates and trade union representatives are entitled to higher compensation: a maximum of 9 months' pay (instead of 6 months' pay).

    - Injured workers declared unfit to work:
    Art. 100 LL: The employer shall notify the Labor Inspector prior to dismissing a worker dismissed due to an accident.

    It is also worth noting that in case of termination of the employment contract during paid leave or suspension period by the employer, the notice allowance is doubled (art. 31 LL).
    Reasons for the suspension of the employment contract are listed in art. 25 LL, as follows:
    1. absence from work due to a disease confirmed by a recognized medical doctor;
    2. worker's unavailability due to a work accident or a professional disease;
    3. maternity leave of a woman;
    4. a strike or lock-out which comply with the procedures regulating the labour collective dispute;
    5. worker's absence authorised by the employer by virtue of collective conventions or individual agreements between employer and worker;
    6. worker's lay-off;
    7. pre-trial detention of a worker for a period not exceeding six (6) months;
    8. training of the worker organized by a trade union to which he/she is entitled as per the modalities set by the law or collective conventions ;
    9. suspension of the enterprise's activity due to technical reasons;
    10. in case of force majeure or any other reason provided for by the law with the effect of preventing one of the parties from fulfilling its obligation.

    In Rwanda, there is no prohibition of termination of employment during the suspension period (except for maternity leave, see art. 67 LL), the employer is only required to pay twice the amount of the notice allowance.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 30 LL: notice of termination must be given in writing to the interested party and must specify the reasons for the dismissal.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 27 LL: The notice period shall be at least:
    - 15 days if the worker has worked for less than a year;
    - 1 month if the worker has workers for a period of one year or more.

    No notice period shall apply to a worker on probation.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 1 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 32 LL.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • No general obligation to notify the administration of any dismissal. This only applies in case of the dismissal of a worker for economic and technological reasons (art. 34 LL - see below under collective dismissals).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    The LL does not define collective dismissal in terms of the number of employees concerned.
    Specific notification requirements apply to any individual and collective dismissal on economic grounds or due to internal reorganization, restructuring following economic difficulties or technological transfers with the aim of protecting the competitiveness of the enterprise.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 34 LL.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Non

    Remarks:
    • No preliminary consultation required in the LL (art. 34 LL).
      Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LC: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 34 LL: Obligation to inform the competent labour inspector in writing.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • No statutory obligation to inform the worker's representatives in the LL (art. 34 LL).
      Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LL: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 34 LL: performance, professional qualification, time spent in the enterprise and family responsibilities shall be taken into account when selecting the workers to be dismissed.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • No statutory obligation to consider alternatives to dismissals in the LC (art. 34 LL).
      Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LL: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Notes / Remarques
    The LC provides for additional notification requirements which are not specific to collective dismissal: they apply to any economic dismissal concerning 1 or more employees.

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • According to art. 35 LL, upon dismissal, workers are entitled to severance pay ("dismissal compensation") provided that they have completed a period of at least twelve (12) consecutive months of work.
      Statutory severance pay is payable at the following rates:
      - 1 month' salary for less than 5 years of service;
      - 2 months' salary for 5 to 10 years of service;
      - 3 months' salary for 10 to 15 years of service;
      - 4 months' salary for 15 to 20 years of service;
      - 5 months' salary for 20 to 25 years of service; and
      - 6 months' salary for more than 25 years of service.

    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 5 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • The LL does not provide for specific redundancy pay. Severance pay provided for in art. 35 LL also cover economic dismissals.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 5 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • Art. 33 LL.

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    - Workers with up to 10 years of service:
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 6 months' salary.

    - Workers with over 10 years of service:
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

    - Trade union and staff representatives (regardless of seniority) :
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 33 LL.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 140 LL:
      When an individual labour dispute arises, the concerned party shall request the workers' delegates (staff representative) to settle it amicably.
      - In case the dispute is not settled, it shall be referred to the Labour Inspector for an out-of-court settlement.
      - When conciliation efforts fail, the dispute may be taken before the competent court.
      - If the above mentioned steps have not been followed, the court may declare the claim inadmissible.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Only for collective labour disputes (arts. 144-150 LL)

    Information supplémentaire - 2013    

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