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Rwanda
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références
  • Law No. 66/2018 of 30 August 2018 regulating Labour in Rwanda (repealing Law No 13/2009 of 27 May 2009 regulating labour in Rwanda [LL]
    Date: 30 Aug 2018; voir le site internet »
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : aucune
Remarks:
  • Art. 2(2) LL repealed the exclusion of public service employees from the scope of the LC in Art. 3 of the 2009 LL.
    Art. 2 provides that the Law applies to employment relations based on an employment contract between an employee and an employer in the public service, unless otherwise provided by the general statutes for public service.

    Art. 2(5) LL provides that self- employed people are included in the scope of this Law in relation to occupational safety and health.

    Art 2(6) LL, which repealed the previous provisions in Art. 3 of the 2009 LL provides that employees in the informal sector are included in the scope of the law in relation to occupational safety and health; the right to form trade unions and employers’ associations; the right to salary; the minimum wage in categories of occupations determined by an Order of the Minister in charge of labour; the right to leave; social security; protection against workplace discrimination; protection from forced labour; prohibited forms of work for the child, pregnant or breastfeeding woman.

Notes / Remarques
In 2018, a new Labour Code was adopted. It replaced the 2009 Labour Code.


Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • • Art. 13 LL provides that the probation period cannot exceed 3 months. However, after the written evaluation of the employee’s performance notified to the employee, the employer can for valid reasons related to the nature of work, employee’s performance and conduct, decides that an employee retakes the probation for a period not exceeding three (3) months.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
    Remarks:
    • Art. 11 LL provides that an employment contract can be for a fixed term or indefinite.
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • The LC does not require any valid reason for the use of FTC.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation on the maximum duration of successive FTCs.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 28 LL provides that a party wishing to terminate a fixed-term employment contract before the expiry of the duration set therein must have legitimate reasons for termination.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : tout motif légitime
Remarks:
  • • Art. 26 LL provides that an employer may terminate an employment contract without notice in case of an employee’s gross misconduct.
    • Art. 27 LL provides that an indefinite-term employment contract can be terminated by either party for legitimate reasons.
    • See also Art. 3 (17) LL which provides that an unfair dismissal is the termination of an employment contract by the employer without legitimate reasons or respecting procedures provided for by law.


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; couleur; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; statut financier ; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • The LL does not contain a list of prohibited grounds for dismissal but it contains a general prohibition of discrimination in work matter.

    • However, Art. 8 LL prohibits the dismissal of an employee for having reported or testified on sexual harassment committed by his/her supervisor; and provides that if there is tangible evidence that an employee has resigned due to sexual harassment committed against him/her by his/her supervisor, his/her resignation is considered as unfair dismissal.

    • Art. 19 LL prohibits the dismissal of an employee as a result of occupational accident unless a recognized doctor declares him/her unfit to resume service in the employment he/she held prior to the accident.

    • Art. 30 refers to the damages payable to employees’ representatives, occupational health and safety committee members and trade union representatives who are victims of unfair dismissal as a result of the discharge of their responsibility to represent employees.

    • Art. 61 LL prohibits the employer from giving notice of dismissal during maternity leave.

    • Art. 9 LL also contains a general prohibition of discrimination in work matters on the basis of ethnic origin, family or ancestry, clan, skin colour or race, sex, region, economic categories, religion or faith, opinion, fortune, cultural difference, language, physical or mental disability or any other form of discrimination.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée
Remarks:
  • - Women on maternity leave:
    Prohibition to dismiss a woman during maternity leave (art. 61 LL)

    - Workers' representatives:
    In case of an unlauful dismissal, workers' delegates and trade union representatives are entitled to the payment of damages up to a maximum of 9 months' pay (instead of 6 months' pay).

    - Injured workers declared unfit to work:
    Art. 19 LL prohibits the dismissal of an employee as a result of occupational accident, unless declared as unfit to work by a doctor.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 24 LL provides that a notice of termination must be given in writing to the interested concerned party and must specify the reasons for the dismissal. However, Art. 29 provides that the notice is not required if so agreed between the parties.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 24LL: The notice period shall be at least:
    - 15 days if the worker has worked for less than a year;
    - 1 month if the worker has workers for a period of one year or more.

    No notice period shall apply to a worker on probation.

    Art. 28(2) LL provides that where a fixed term contract is terminated due to gross negligence, the party causing the contract to be terminated shall notify the same to the other party within fourty eight (48) hours.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 1 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • • Art. 25 provides that any contract termination without notice or without having fully observed the notice period results in the party responsible for termination paying the other party the compensation provided for by this Law.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • No general obligation to notify the administration of any dismissal. This only applies in case of the dismissal of a worker for economic and technological reasons (art. 34 LL - see below under collective dismissals).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    The LL does not define collective dismissal in terms of the number of employees concerned.
    Specific notification requirements apply to any individual and collective dismissal on economic grounds or due to internal reorganization, restructuring following economic difficulties or technological transfers with the aim of protecting the competitiveness of the enterprise under Art. 21 LL.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 34 LL.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Non

    Remarks:
    • No preliminary consultation required in the LL (art. 34 LL).
      Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LC: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21 LL establishes an obligation to inform the competent labour inspector in writing.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • NEW: Art. 21 of the 2018 LL, which repealed the 2009 LL, provides that an employer may, after informing employees’ representatives in the enterprise, proceed with individual or collective dismissal due to the enterprise’s internal reorganization or restructuring due to economic reason or technological transfer with the aim of preserving the enterprise’s competitiveness

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21 LL provides that the employer must place employees on the list of those to be dismissed based on performance, professional qualification, experience in the enterprise and legally recognized dependents of each employee.

      Art. 22 LL does not provide any criteria for re-employment. Instead, it establishes a general right of reinstatement. Any employee dismissed for economic or technical reasons, and whose dismissal does not last more than six (6) months is entitled to be reinstated in employment without competition when he/she meets the profile required for the position to which the employer seeks to fill.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Non

    Remarks:
    • No statutory obligation to consider alternatives to dismissals in the LC (art. 21 LL).
      Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001): any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2019    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • • Art. 31 of the 2018 LL repealed Art. 35 of the 2009, LL, which provided “dismissal compensation” or severance pay. Art. 31 in the new LL provides that upon termination of an employment contract as a result of economic reasons, technological transfer or sickness, workers are entitled to severance pay ("terminal benefits") provided that they have completed a period of at least twelve (12) consecutive months of work. The new LL, which repealed the 2009 LL introduced new calculations for minimum entitlements as follows:

      Statutory severance pay is payable at the following rates:
      - 2 month' salary for less than 5 years of service;
      - 3 months' salary for 5 to 10 years of service;
      - 4months' salary for 10 to 15 years of service;
      - 5 months' salary for 15 to 20 years of service;
      - 6 months' salary for 20 to 25 years of service; and
      - 7 months' salary for more than 25 years of service.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 6 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • • The new provisions introduced by the 2018 LL under Art. 31 establish the basis of the payment of “terminal benefits” to employees upon the termination of an employment contract as a result of economic reasons, technological transfer or sickness, granted the employee completed at least 12 consecutive months of work.

      Redundancy payment is payable at the following rates:
      - 2 month' salary for less than 5 years of service;
      - 3 months' salary for 5 to 10 years of service;
      - 4months' salary for 10 to 15 years of service;
      - 5 months' salary for 15 to 20 years of service;
      - 6 months' salary for 20 to 25 years of service; and
      - 7 months' salary for more than 25 years of service.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 6 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • Art. 30 LL.

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    Art. 30 LL establishes the following legal limits for the calculation of compensation for unfair dismissal:

    - Workers with up to 10 years of service:
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 6 months' salary.

    - Workers with over 10 years of service:
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

    - Trade union and staff representatives (regardless of seniority) :
    Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 30 LL.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, Art. 22 LL establishes that any employee dismissed for economic or technical reasons, and whose dismissal does not last more than six (6) months is entitled to be reinstated in employment without competition when he/she meets the profile required for the position to which the employer seeks to fill.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 102 LL:
      When an individual labour dispute arises, the concerned party shall request the employees' representatives to settle it amicably.
      - In case the dispute is not settled, it shall be referred to the local Labour Inspector for an out-of-court settlement.
      - When conciliation efforts fail, the dispute may be taken before the competent court.
      - If the above mentioned steps have not been followed, the court may declare the claim inadmissible.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Only for collective labour disputes (arts. 144-150 LL)

    Information supplémentaire - 2019    

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