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Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références
  • Labour Code [LC], Act of 28 June 2012
    Date: 28 Jun 2012 (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues: fonctionnaires
Remarks:
  • Article 1 of the Labour Code provides that the Labour Code covers all the relationship between a worker and an employer of the public or private sector. However, this provision adds that persons under permanent employment in the public administration are excluded from the scope of regulation by the Labour Code.

Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Article 37 of the Labour Code.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: aucune limitation
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2
    Remarks:
    • Article 34 of the Labour Code: the duration of a fixed-term contract cannot exceed 2 years and it may be renewed only once for the maximum duration of one year.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 36 mois
    Remarks:
    • Article 34 of the Labour Code: the duration of a fixed-term contract cannot exceed 2 years and it may be renewed only once for the maximum duration of one year.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui
Remarks:
  • Article 48 of the Labour Code.



Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime
Remarks:
  • Article 43 of the Labour Code requires a valid reason connected with the capacity or conduct of the worker or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking, establishment or service.


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; affiliation et activités syndicales; statut VIH
Remarks:
  • Article 2 of the Labour Code: general prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national or social origin including with respect to disciplinary measures and dismissal.

    Article 44 of the Labour Code (former art. 46) provides a list of reasons which cannot consitute valid reasons for termination:
    - trade-union membership or non-membership and trade-union activities;
    - race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion or belief, political or philosophical opinion, nationality or social origin;
    - seeking office as, or acting or having acted in the capacity of, a workers' representative;
    - the filing of a complaint or the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws;
    - absence from work during maternity leave or temporary absence from work because of illness or injury;
    New in June 2012: Additional grounds have been introduced:
    - HIV status, whether real or perceived;
    - having reported or testified about sexual or psychological harassment (workplace bullying) by an employer or his representative.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité
Remarks:
  • - Workers' representatives: article 203 of the Labour Code: any dismissal of a workers' representative must be approved by the Labour Tribunal. [New in June 2012: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 183, now art. 203), and the new LC introduced new provisions: the new LC provides that the court's decision must be made within a period of one month].
    - Women on maternity leave: article 125 of the Labour Code: no worker can be dismissed during maternity leave.
    - In addition, the LC establishes a special protection against dismissal for widows: article 125 (former art. 121) of the Labour Code : any woman who just lost her husband must suspend work for 4 months and 10 days and cannot be dismissed during this period.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks:
  • Article 48 of the Labour Code [Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 50, now art. 48), but its content has remained unchanged].

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): the period of notice is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (previously: the Supreme Council of Work) to take into account, namely, worker's tenure and professional categories. No Decree has been adopted as of 2012.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 0 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 0 mois.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 52 of the Labour Code (former art. 54). [Note: article 52 of the new LC now explicitly uses the term "compensation in lieu of notice" to refer to such payment].

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    There is no statutory definition of collective dismissal.
    The Labour Code established a regime which applies to any dismissal justified by the reduction of the activity of the undertaking or an internal reorganization.

    Remarks:
    • Article 49 of the Labour Code.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Non

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 49 of the Labour Code: mandatory notification to the labour inspector (former art. 51).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 49 of the Labour Code: Mandatory notification to the workers' representatives

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 49 of the Labour Code: prior to a dismissal motivated by a decrease in the activity of the undertaking or internal reorganization, the employer must establish an order of dismissal in particular taking into account the professional qualifications, seniority and family responsibilities of workers.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 50 of the Labour Code - during 2 years after the dismissal for economic reasons. [Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art.52 now art. 50), but its content has remained unchanged].

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2019    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): severance pay for all types of dismissals is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (former Supreme Labour Council) and must take into account, in particular, worker's tenure and professional categories.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Article 50 of the Labour Code: severance pay for all types of dismissals is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Supreme Labour Council to take into account, namely, worker's tenure and professional categories.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

    Notes / Remarques
    Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): severance pay and redundancy pay are to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (former Supreme Labour Council) and must take into account, in particular, worker's tenure and professional categories.

    No Decree has been adopted as of this year.

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 44 of the Labour Code

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 44 of the Labour Code: reinstatement shall be the primary remedy.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 47 of the Labour Code (former art.49): before going to the court, any worker who believes he/she has been unfairly dismissed has to challenge his or her dismissal before the labour inspector. The Labour Inspector examines the alleged reasons for the dismissal and any other circumstances of the case and make recommendations in order to reach an amicable settlement including reinstatement.

      Articles 220 and 226 of the Labour Code (former art. 200 and 206): mandatory pre-trial conciliation by the labour tribunal.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Articles 44 and 212 of the Labour Code (former art.46 and 192).

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Information supplémentaire - 2019    

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