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Argentine
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2018    

Références
  • o Labour Contract Law [LCL], Law No. 20.744 promulgated by Decree 390/1976 of 13 May 1976, as last amended by Laws No. 27.320, 27.321, 27.322, 27.323 and 27.325 of 13 December 2016, (Ley del Contrato de Trabajo - available only in Spanish)
    Date: 13 Dec 2016; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • National Employment Law [NEL], Law No. 24.013 of 5 December 1991, Law No. 26.727 of 21 December 2011, Ley Nacional del Empleo - available only in Spanish)
    Date: 27 Dec 2011; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Organization and Procedures of National labour Justice, Act No. 18.345, consolidated version approved by Decree 106/98 of 26 January 1998, last amended by Law No. 25.999 of 16 December 2004 and (Organización y Procedimiento de la Justicia Nacional del Trabajo, available only in Spanish)
    Date: 16 Dec 2004; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Trade Unions Act, Law No. 23551 of 23 March 1988, (Ley de Asociaciones Sindicales – available only in Spanish)
    Date: 22 Apr 1988; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Agricultural Employment Law, Law No. 26.727 of 21 December 2011, (Ley del Trabajo Agrario – available only in Spanish)
    Date: 05 Jan 2012; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Procedure and Mandatory Conciliation Act, Law No. 24.635 of 10 April 1996, complementing Law 18.345. (Procedimiento Laboral. Conciliación obligatoria previa. Modificación de la ley 18.345 – Ley 24.645, available only in Spanish)
    Date: 01 Aug 1997; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Small and Medium Enterprises Law [SMEL], Law No. 24467 of 15 March 1995, as last amended by Law No. 26496 (B.O. 7/5/2009)(Pequeña y Mediana Empresa - Ley 24.467, available only in Spanish)
    Date: 15 Apr 2009; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Remarks:
  • The rules on notice period do not apply to small and medium sized companies which are defined as those companies which up to 40 employees and a maximum annual turnover of such an amount set out by a special monitory commission (Comisión Especial de Seguimiento) for each activity or sector (art. 83 SMEL).
    In those companies, the employer is only required to give an advance notice of one month to the employee, regardless of the length of service (art. 95 SMEL).

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; travailleurs agricoles; travailleurs domestiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 LCL (scope of application of the Law) provides that the provisions of the LCL do not apply to:
    - persons employed by the national, provincial or municipal civil service (except where they are expressly included within its scope or within that of collective labour agreements),
    - domestic workers " [New in 2013] " notwithstanding that the provisions of this act will be of application in all which is compatible and does not contradict the nature and modalities typical of the Domestic Work's normative framework" or when it is expressly provided (inserted by art. 72 of by Act 26.884 of 13 March 2013 on domestic workers.)
    - agricultural workers " [New in 2012] " notwithstanding that the provisions of this act will be of complementary application in all which is compatible and does not contradict the nature and modalities typical of the Agricultural Work's normative framework" (inserted by art. 104 of by Act 26.727 of 28 December 2011 on agricultural workers.)

Types de contrats de travail - 2018    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 92bis LCL: the first three months of employment of indeterminate contracts, except for seasonal work referred to in Article 96 LCL, are considered a probationary period.
    During this time, either party may terminate the employment contract without justification and without liability for indemnification. Notice requirements must however be observed.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • In Argentina, there is a legal preference for contracts of unspecified duration or "indeterminate contracts" (art. 90 LCL) and where doubt exists as to the terms and conditions governing a contract of employment, it will be presumed to be an indeterminate contract (art. 27 NEL). The employer is in charge of providing evidence that a contract is a fixed-term contract (art. 92 LCL).

      Fixed-term contracts are employment contracts for specified periods of time where the contract duration is expressly written into the contract (art. 90(a) LCL) and contracts concluded for specific tasks that justify the use of a fixed term contract (art. 90(b) LCL).

      The Law does not stipulate limitations as to the reasons for concluding fixed-term contracts. However, there is a limitation as to the maximum duration of the employment relationship (5 years, art. 93 LCL).
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation on the number of successive fixed-term contracts, as long as the total duration of the employment relationship does not exceed 5 years (art. 93 LCL).

      The formalization of successive fixed-term contracts exceeding what is foreseen in art. 90(b)LCL (nature of the task) turns the contract into a contract of indefinite duration (Art. 90 LCL).
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 5 année(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 93 LCL

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2018    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 242 LCL: Termination for "just cause" (justa causa):
    Either of the parties may terminate the contract of employment if the other fails to discharge his or her obligations under the contract to an extent such that the relationship can no longer continue. When an employer decides to dismiss a worker for "just cause", notice of the fact must be given in writing with a sufficiently clear indication of the grounds invoked for the termination of the contract.

    Where the other party challenges the termination, no changes on the grounds indicated in the notice are permitted (art. 243 LCL).


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : tout motif légitime; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 242 LCL: Termination for "justified grounds" (justa causa): Either of the parties may terminate the contract of employment if the other fails to discharge his or her obligations under the contract to an extent such that the relationship can no longer continue. The LCL does not specify the conduct or acts that will be considered sufficient to terminate employment.

    Art. 247 LCL: A dismissal can be ordered for reasons of force majeure or on account of a shortage or reduction of work that is duly proved to be beyond the employer's control. In such case, the worker is entitled to receive compensation.

    Art. 244 LCL: A worker's abandonment of his or her work may be regarded as constituting a failure to discharge his or her duties only if he or she is found to be absent after formal notice has been served on the worker instructing him or her to resume work within a period appropriate to the circumstances of the case.



Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; race; sexe; religion ; opinion politique ; nationalité/origine nationale ; âge ; affiliation et activités syndicales
Remarks:
  • See: Art. 17 LCL: general prohibition of discrimination in employment; art. 178 (dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy); art: 181-182 (dismissal on the grounds of marriage).


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée; travailleurs seniors/à la veille de la retraite; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail; travailleurs exerçant un mandat électif ou une fonction politique
Remarks:
  • Argentine law provides special protection from employment termination to some specific categories of workers, including: women, trade union representatives and members, injured workers, workers on the verge of retirement, and those serving in the military.

    - A woman worker must notify her employer of her pregnancy and provide a medical certificate stating that her confinement will probably take place within the period indicated. She is to retain her employment during the period indicated and is entitled to the allowances granted by the social security schemes. She must also be guaranteed stability of employment, which will constitute an acquired right from the date on which she notifies her employer of the fact that she is pregnant (art. 177 LCL).

    It shall be presumed, in the absence of proof to the contrary, that the dismissal of a female worker is carried out on the grounds of maternity or pregnancy if it takes place within seven and a half months before or after confinement, if and when the woman has fulfilled her obligation to notify and prove, through certification, the fact that she is pregnant and, if applicable, the birth of the child. Under such circumstances, she should be paid compensation equivalent to one year's wages in addition to any other compensation required by law (arts. 177 and 182 LCL).

    - A worker belonging to a board of management or holding representative office in an occupational association with trade status, in bodies which require trade union representation, or holding political office in the Government, is entitled to automatic leave without pay, and the employer must keep his or her job open and reinstate him or her when he or she ceases to perform his or her duties. The worker is to enjoy security of employment throughout the term of office and for one year thereafter, unless there is good cause for dismissal (Act No. 23551 of 14 Apr. 1988 on trade unions, art. 48).

    - Trade union representatives in an enterprise may not be suspended, have their working conditions changed, or be dismissed throughout their terms of office and for one year thereafter, unless there is good cause for doing so. Security of employment for a trade union representative begins from the time of his or her candidature for a representative office in a trade union is submitted, and he or she may not be dismissed or suspended without good cause, nor may his or her conditions of work be modified for a period of six months. This protection will cease for those workers whose candidature is not officialised in accordance with the applicable electoral process from the moment in which such circumstance is certainly determined.(Act No. 23551, arts. 48 and 50).

    - Article 50 Act No. 23551 establishes the special protections for worker representatives: Workers protected by articles 40, 48 and 50 of this Act cannot be suspended, dismissed or have their contractual conditions modified without a judicial decision excluding such protection, in accordance with the procedure established in Article 47. […] When the employer violates the protection established in the abovementioned articles, the worker will have the right to demand before a judge its reinstatement, together with the salaries lost during the judicial procedure, or the reestablishment of its working conditions. […]

    - Where, on expiry of the periods for which work may be interrupted on account of a bona fide accident or illness, a worker is unable to return to work, the employer should keep his or her post open for one year, counting from the expiry of such periods (art. 211 LCL).

    - Where a worker fulfils the qualifying conditions for retirement pensions and begins the necessary formalities, the employer must maintain the employment relationship until the appropriate fund grants the benefit, for a maximum of one year (art. 252 LCL).

    - An employer must keep a worker's post open if the latter is obliged to perform compulsory military service because of an ordinary call-up, mobilization or special call-up, and must continue to do so from the date of the call-up and until 30 days after the completion of the service (art. 214 LCL).


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2018    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 235 LCL.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 231 (b) LCL: establishes various statutory notice periods

    According to article 231 LCL this is the compulsory minimum notification period, but the parties can agree on a longer one.

    Fixed term contracts must follow article 94 LCT, according to which parties need to inform the other party of the end of the contract between 1 and 2 months before the agreed deadline, except if the contract is for the duration of less than one 1 month. If the advance notice is not observed, it will be presumed the conversion of the contract to an indeterminate one, except if an explicit renovation of the contract has been agreed.

    Please note, however, that these rules do not apply to small and medium sized companies which are defined as those companies which up to 40 employees and a maximum annual turnover of such an amount set out by a special monitory commission (Comisión Especial de Seguimiento) for each activity or sector (art. 83 SMEL).
    In those companies, the employer is only required to give an advance notice of one month to the employee, regardless of the length of service (art. 95 SMEL).
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 2 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 232 LCL.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Remarks:
    • Decree 1043/2018 ( 12/11/2018) establishes the following temporary provisions:
      ARTÍCULO 6°.- Establécese, hasta el 31 de marzo de 2019, un procedimiento por el cual los empleadores, antes de disponer despidos sin justa causa de trabajadores con contratos de trabajo por tiempo indeterminado, deberán comunicar la decisión al MINISTERIO DE PRODUCCIÓN Y TRABAJO con una anticipación no menor a DIEZ (10) días hábiles previo a hacerla efectiva.
      ARTÍCULO 7°.- El MINISTERIO DE PRODUCCIÓN Y TRABAJO, de oficio o a petición de parte, podrá convocar al empleador y al trabajador junto con la asistencia gremial pertinente, a fin de celebrar durante el plazo fijado en el artículo 6° del presente, las audiencias que estime necesarias para considerar las condiciones en que se llevará a cabo la futura extinción laboral.
      ARTÍCULO 8°.- El incumplimiento de lo establecido en el presente capítulo dará lugar a la aplicación de las sanciones previstas en el Anexo II de la Ley N° 25.212 y sus modificatorias.
      ARTÍCULO 9°.- Exceptúase del procedimiento establecido en el presente capítulo, al personal de la Industria de la Construcción, contratado en los términos de la Ley N° 22.250.
      Source: http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/315000-319999/316286/norma.htm

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Notes / Remarques
    The notice period requirements do not apply to dismissals for "just cause".
    The only procedural requirement for dismissal for "just cause" is the submission of written notice of the fact of dismissal with a clear indication of the grounds invoked for the termination of the contract. There is no legally prescribed time limit for the submission of this notice.

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2018    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Art. 98 NEL:
    Dismissal on the grounds of force majeure, economic or technological reasons concerning:
    - more than 15% of workers in undertakings employing less than 400 workers;
    - more than 10% of workers in undertakings employing between 400 and 1000 workers;
    - more than 5% of workers in undertakings employing more than 1000 workers.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 98 NEL: threshold for the application of the crisis prevention procedure.

      If such threshold is not reached, the crisis prevention procedure is not compulsory. Dismissals on economic grounds or shortage or reduction of workforce that affect totally or partially the personnel (As observed in article 247 LCT) must follow, however, National Decree 328/88 which develops article 247 LCT.

      This relation between the crisis prevention procedure (art 98-105 NEL) and Decree 328/88 can be found in article 4 Decree 265/2002 on Enterprises in Crisis.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 100 and 101 NEL.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 99, 100 NEL.
      Art. 1 Decree 328/88

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 99, 100, 101 NEL.
      Article 3 Decree 328/88

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 103 NEL: If the parties reach an agreement, they will notify the Ministry of Labour, who shall in turn within 10 days, either authorise ("homologar") the agreement or reject ("rechazar") it.
      If the Administration does not make a decision within 10 days, the agreement will be considered authorised.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art 247 LCL: Where a dismissal is ordered for reasons of force majeure or on account of a shortage or reduction of work that is duly proved to be beyond the employer's control, the first workers to be dismissed will be those with the shortest length of service.
      With regards employees that joined the enterprise during the same semester, those with less family obligations will be dismissed before, even if that alters the job tenure order.
      Art. 51 Ley de Asociaciones Sindicales: Worker’s representatives enjoying employment permanence Will not be able to invoke this protection in cases of general suspension or ceasing of the Enterprise activities. In those cases where there is no general suspension of activities, but staff reduction by way of suspensions and dismissals in which the job tenure order shall be observed, workers enjoying employment permanence protection as established in the present law will be excluded from this order.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Non

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2018    

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    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Art. 247 LCL: Where a dismissal is ordered on account of a reduction of work that is duly proved to be beyond the employer's control or for force majeure, the worker is entitled to receive compensation equal to half that provided for in cases of dismissal without good cause (= 1/2 compensation for unfair dismissal).
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 10 mois

    Notes / Remarques
    1) dismissal with cause (reference to valid grounds): no severance pay
    2) dismissal for economic reasons: redundancy payment
    3) dismissal without cause: compensation for unfair dismissal (art. 245 LCL)


    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2018    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    An employer who orders a worker's dismissal without good cause must pay the worker compensation equal to: one month's wages for every year of service and every fraction of a year greater than three months, taking as a basis for the calculation the highest monthly remuneration normally and regularly received during the last year or during the period for which the services were performed, whichever is less.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 245 LCL

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Mandatory conciliation is foreseen in Art. 1 of Act 24.635 (Ley Nº 24.635 - Procedimiento laboral. Conciliación obligatoria previa. Modificación de la ley 18.345)

      Act available at:
      http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/35000-39999/36739/norma.htm

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Art. 20, Organization and Procedures of National labour Justice, Act No. 18.345.

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Voluntary arbitration is foreseen in Art. 28 of Act 24.635 when mandatory conciliation fails (Ley Nº 24.635 - Procedimiento laboral. Conciliación obligatoria previa. Modificación de la ley 18.345)

      Act available at:
      http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/35000-39999/36739/norma.htm

      See also Article 149ff Ley Nacional de Empleo (Ley 18.435)

    Information supplémentaire - 2018    

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    Liens

    Ministry of Labour - Legislation (only in Spanish) »