L'OIT est une institution spécialisée des Nations-Unies
ILO-fr-strap
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us English | español
> GOUVERNANCE - page d'accueil > EPLex: une base de données sur les législations de protection de l'emploi >

Suisse
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références
  • Code of Obligations [CO], adopted on 30 March 1911, consolidated version dated 28 May 2013, including amendments up to Federal Law of 16 March 2012. In particular, see Part. II, Title X, Chap. I.
    (Loi fédérale complétant le code civil suisse - Livre cinquième: Droit des obligations - available in French, German and Italian)
    Date: 16 Mar 2012; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • This exclusion only covers collective dismissals: see definition of collective dismissal in Art. 335d CO. However, the rules on individual dismissal apply to all enterprises.

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; police; armée; magistrature
Remarks:
  • The CO applies to every contract (incl. contract of employment) of private law.
    A specific law dated 2000 applies to 'employees of the Confederation' (Loi sur le personnel de la Confédération) and contains provisions on termination of employment.
    In addition, there are specific regulations applicable to employment relationship in the judiciary, army, police.

Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

+ show references

Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 335b(2) CO.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, existence of safeguards.
      1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
      2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "chain contracts" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, existence of safeguards.
      1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
      2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "chain contract" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • However, existence of safeguards.
      1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
      2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "contrats en chaîne" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).
  • % de travailleurs sous CDD: 12.8 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of third trimester 2013.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

+ show references

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • The Swiss CO distinguishes between two categories of individual dismissals:
    1) Ordinary dismissal ("congé") by one of the party with a notice period:
    Written justification must be provided upon request by the other party (art. 335 CO).

    2) Termination by one one the party with immediate effect:
    Written justification must be provided upon request of the other party (art. 337 (1) CO).


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : aucun
Remarks:
  • The employment contract can be terminated by either party provided that notice period requirements are complied with.
    No list of valid grounds is provided. However, this does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds. In addition, the CO states that dismissal ("congé") should not constitute an abuse of right (art. 336 CO).

    For Termination with immediate effect (no notice) fair reasons are requested. (art. 337 (1) CO)


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; orientation sexuelle ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; âge ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; accomplissement du service militaire ou civil ; exercice d'un droit; uniquement dans le but d'empêcher la naissance de prétentions juridiques résultant du contrat de travail; état de santé ; antécédents judiciaires ou non révélation de ces antécédents
Remarks:
  • Amongst those prohibited grounds, only "trade union activities", "performing Swiss military service or civil service", "exercise of a constitutional right" and "solely frustrate the formation of claims of the other party arising out of the employment relationship" are specifically mentioned in the CO in art. 336 (2) and 336 (1) e) CO on unfair dismissal.

    However, art. 336 (1) a) CO refers to "quality inherent to the personality of the other party, unless such quality relates to the employment relationship or significantly impairs cooperation within the enterprise".
    This should be read in the light of art. 8 of the Swiss Constitution that specifically establishes a general prohibition based in particular on grounds of origin, race, gender, age, language, way of life, religious, ideological, or political convictions or because of a physical, mental or psychological disability.

    See art. 336c (1) b) for temporary (work) injury or illness. Only additional safeguards (timeframe) during which dismissal is not possible are provided. This ground could constitute a cause for dismissal if it impairs cooperation within the enterprise.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs ayant une longue ancienneté
Remarks:
  • *No dismissal of pregnant women and women on maternity leave: art. 336c (1) c) CO
    * Workers with an important length of tenure: higher protection with respect to severance allowance: art. 339c CO.
    * Workers' representatives: constitutes an abusive termination the dismissal of an employee during the exercise of a mandate as employees' representative unless the employer demonstrates a justified motive for dismissal: art. 336 (2) b) CO.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

+ show references

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks:
  • However, according to Art. 335 (2) CO, the party giving notice should state the reason for terminating employment in writing if requested by the other party.
    The same rule applies in case of dismissal with immediate effect : art. 337 CO.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • 1) For ordinary dismissals:
    According to art. 335c CO, the general rule on the notice period is the following:
    *1 month during the first year of service;
    *2 months between 2 and 9 years of service;
    *3 months over 9 years of service.

    These timeframes can be modified by written agreement, collective agreement but shall not be less than 1 month.
    Exceptions to this rule are permitted only during the first year of service and if set by a collective agreement (art. 335c (2) CO).

    2) Specific rules apply to FTC:
    No notice period is prescribed except for FTC concluded for up to 10 years (art. 334 (1) CO).
    For FTC concluded for more than 10 years, a notice period of 6 months should be respected by either party (art. 334 (2) CO).
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 3 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 3 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Non

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

    + show references

    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Collective dismissals are those made by the employer within a period of 30 days for reasons which are not related to the personality of the workers and affecting the following numbers of workers:
    1) at least 10 workers in undertakings employing between 20 and 100 workers;
    2) at least 10% of the workforce in undertakings employing between 100 and 300 workers
    3) at least 30 workers in establishments employing at least 300 workers.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 335d CO.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 335f CO.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 335g CO.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 335f CO.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • 335 f 2) CO: the employer must allow the workers' representatives to formulate proposals aiming at avoiding dismissals or mitigating their adverse effects.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

    + show references

    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • No general statutory severance pay or redundancy payment scheme. However, upon termination of the contract by either parties, a worker is at least 50 years old and has 20 or more or more years of service with the same employer is entitled to a long service payment ("indemnité à raison de longs rapports de travail")(art. 339c CO).
      As a minimum, this payment should amount to 2 months wages and shall not exceed 8 months: art. 339c (1) &(2) CO. However, it may be reduced in part or cancelled if the employee terminates his contract without proper justification, if the employer summarily dismiss him for valid reasons or of if the payment of this amount would result in difficulties for the employer (art. 339c (3) CO).

      Notes / Remarques
      No general statutory severance pay or redundancy payment scheme.
      However, upon termination of the contract by either parties, a worker is at least 50 years old and has 20 or more or more years of service with the same employer is entitled to a long service payment ("indemnité à raison de longs rapports de travail": art. 339c CO).
      As a minimum, this payment should amount to 2 months wages and shall not exceed 8 months: art. 339c (1) &(2) CO. However, it may be reduced in part or canceled if the employee terminates his contract without proper justification, if the employer summarily dismiss him for valid reasons or of if the payment of this amount would result in difficulties for the employer (art. 339c (3) CO).

      Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

      + show references

      Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

      Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
      1) Ordinary dismissal constituting an abuse of rights:
      - Compensation awarded by the judge cannot exceed 6 months' wages.
      2) Dismissal with immediate effect, when there is no fair reason:
      - In addition to the amount the worker would have earned if the notice period had been observed, the judge may award compensation which cannot exceed 6 months' wages.

      Remarks:
      • 1) Ordinary dismissals constituting an abuse of rights:
        Art. 336a (1) and (2) CO. The amount of compensation must be assessed according to the rules of law and equity, in accordance with Art. 4 of the Civil Code (CC).
        2) Dismissals with immediate effect in the absence of fair reason: art. 337c CO.

      Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

      Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

      Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire ; tribunal du travail

      Remarks:
      • According to Art. 343 CO, the procedure is to be conducted at a cantonal level. Depending on the canton, cases are either heard by a civil court or by a labour court.

      Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

      Information supplémentaire - 2013    

      + show references

      Liens

      Background paper for the Tripartite Meeting of Experts to Examine the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158), and the Termination of Employment Recommendation, 1982 (No. 166), April 2011 »
      See the country study on employment termination legislation in Switzerland: pp. 54-56.