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> GOUVERNANCE - page d'accueil > EPLex: une base de données sur les législations de protection de l'emploi >

Danemark
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2017    

Références
NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • The data provided for Denmark in this database are reflecting only the content of specific laws protecting against unfair dismissals and do not reflect the content of collective agreements. Users of the database are therefore reminded that traditionally in Denmark the main source of labour law is collective agreement; the role of the State being one of facilitator as opposed to one of regulator. One can therefore not rule out that, on specific issues and/or in specific sectors, termination of employment is regulated quite differently from what is presented in the database. It is worthwhile highlighting that collective agreements are reported to cover 60 to 85% of employees and to serve as a baseline reference by the Courts when ruling on disputes involving workers not covered by a specific collective agreement.
  • Employers' and Salaried Employees' (Legal Relationship) (Consolidation) Act [ESEA], as amended by Act 285 of 2017
    Date: 29 Mar 2017; voir le site internet »
  • Act on notice [...] in connection with collective redundancies, referred to as Collective Dismissals Act [CDA], Act No. 414 of 1 June 1994, as amended by Act No. 385 of 2017.
    Date: 26 Apr 2017; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • The rules on collective dismissals are only applicable to enterprises with more than 20 workers [see definition of collective dismissal: sec. 1 CDA].
    However, the rules on individual dismissal apply to all enterprises.

Catégories de travailleurs exclues: fonctionnaires; travailleurs domestiques; gens de la mer; apprentis; clergé; enseignants; ouvriers
Remarks:
  • - There is no general employment legislation covering individual contracts of employment for all categories of workers. There are, however, legislation for specific groups of employees, in particular the Employers' and Salaried Employees' Act (ESEA), which covers white-collar workers.

    - Art. 1 (3) ESEA: "The provisions of this Act shall not apply to civil servants or civil servants on probation in the state sector, the primary school system, the Danish National Church, or the local authorities, to salaried employees covered by the Seamen's Act of 7 June 1952, or to apprentices covered by the Apprenticeship Act".

    - In addition, the ESEA only applies to salaried employees and does not cover blue-collar workers.
    According to art. 1 (1) "salaried employees" shall mean:
    "(a) shop assistants and office workers employed in buying and selling activities, in office work or equivalent warehouse operations,
    (b) persons whose work takes the form of technical or clinical services (except handicraft work or factory work) and other assistants who carry out comparable work functions,
    (c) persons whose work is wholly or mainly to manage or supervise the work of other persons on behalf of the employer,
    (d) persons whose work is mainly of the type specified in (a) and (b)".


Conventions collectives

Remarks:
  • Denmark has a system of decentralized but coordinated collective bargaining. Bargaining at the local level takes place within the parameters set by framework agreements signed by the top organization at industry or branch levels. Only those framework agreements have been referenced here.

General Agreement, 1973 concluded by the Danish Employers' Confederation and the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (amended in 1993 and 2007)
(Note: the 2007 amendments are not included in the English electronic version)


Types de contrats de travail - 2017    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • - There is no general legislation regarding probationary periods in Denmark. For salaried employees (white-collar employees) however, a probationary period of up to three months may be agreed. This period cannot be extended. During the probationary period both parties are entitled to terminate the employment contract by giving 14 days of notice.
    - Sec. 2 (5) ESEA provides that: "if the employer can substantiate that the engagement is on probation and that the employment relationship does not exceed a period of three months, termination on the part of the employment may take place given a period of notice of at least 14 days¿

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 1 (4) ESEA, refers to "objective criteria such as reaching a specific date, completing a specific task or the occurrence of a specific event".
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation regarding the maximum number of successive FTC, but renewal of FTC must be based on objective grounds according to Section 5 of the Act (No. 907 of 2008) on fixed-term employment.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation regarding the maximum number of successive FTC, but renewal of FTC must be based on objective grounds according to Section 5 of the Act (No. 907 of 2008) on fixed-term employment.
  • % de travailleurs sous CDD: 13.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2017    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui
Remarks:
  • - Sec. 2 (7) ESEA : At the employee's request, the employer must state the reason for dismissal. This provision only applies in respect of white-collar employees.

    - Sec. 4 of the General Agreement (1973) concluded by the Danish Employers' Confederation and the Danish Confederation of trade Unions states that "in the case of dismissal of an employee who has been employed in a company for at least nine continuous months, the employee concerned is entitled to request the reason for his dismissal in writing".


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): aucun
Remarks:
  • No ground for dismissals required in the laws reviewed.
    valid grounds may be established through collective agreements.
    This does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds.
    In addition sec. 2b(1) ESEA provides for the employer's obligation to pay compensation if the dismissal of an employee with at least 12 months' service which is not considered to be reasonably justified by the conduct of the employee or the circumstances of the enterprise.
    (see also sec. 3 ESEA)


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; congé de matérnité; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; orientation sexuelle; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; âge; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap; congé parental; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • See anti-discrimination regulation:

    - The Consolidation Act on Equal treatment of Men and Women as regards Access to Employment, 28 June 2006, prohibits discrimination due to sex. The Act also lays down special rules of the burden of proof in cases were an employee is dismissed during pregnancy, adoption or maternity.

    - The Act on Discrimination on the Labour Market, 16 December 2008 as amended in December 2014, prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination due to race, colour, religion, political opinion, sexual orientation, age, disability or national, social or ethnic origin.

    - The Act on Protection against Dismissal due to Organisational Matters, 8 May 2006, protects employees against dismissal due to membership or non membership of a specific trade union and other organisation.

    On temporary illness: see sec. 5 (1) ESEA.

    Without good cause:
    Sec. 2b ESEA: dismissal not considered reasonably justified by the conduct of the employee or the circumstances of the enterprise entail compensation.
    Sec. 3 (1) ESEA: an employer who is terminating the employment relationship without a "good cause" shall pay compensation.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales
Remarks:
  • - See art . 7 ESEA and the Consolidation Act on Equal treatment of Men and Women as regards Access to Employment, 28 June 2006 that lays down special rules of the burden of proof in cases were an employee is dismissed during pregnancy, adoption or maternity.



Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2017    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks:
  • Sec. 2 (7) ESEA.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Sec. 2 (2) ESEA. The notice period shall be:
    * 1 month during the first 6 months' employment;
    * 3 months after 6 months' employment
    * increased by one month for every three years of service, subject to a maximum of 6 months.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • employés - 3 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • employés - 3 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • employés - 3 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • employés - 3 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • employés - 4 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • employés - 6 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • employés - 6 mois.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Non

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Notes / Remarques
    With regards to blue-collar workers, the notice period is not provided in the law but in individual or collective agreements.

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2017    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Over a period of 30 days, at least:
    1) 10 employees in undertakings with 21 to 99 employees;
    2) 10% out of 100 to 299 employees;
    3) 30 employees in undertakings with at least 300 employees.

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 1 CDA

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 5 - 6 CDA

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 7 CDA

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 5 - 6 CDA

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 5 (2) CDA

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2017    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • * White-Collar workers:
      Sec. 2a ESEA:
      In case of dismissal of a salaried employee having worked continuously in the same enterprise for 12 or 17 years, the employer shall pay a sum corresponding to, respectively, 1 or 3 months' salary.
      * Blue-collar workers: no statutory severance pay. Severance pay is regulated by collective agreements.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 3 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • * White-collar workers:
      Economic dismissals are covered by severance pay. There is no specific statutory redundancy payment for collective dismissal.
      Sec. 2a ESEA: In case of dismissal of a salaried employee having worked continuously in the same enterprise for 12 or 17 years, the employer shall pay a sum corresponding to, respectively, 1 or 3 months' salary.

      * Blue-collar workers: no statutory redundancy payment.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 3 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2017    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 2b (1), (2) ESEA

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie):
    For employees having worked for at least 12 months, compensation shall not exceed the salary of the employee corresponding to half of the period of notice; it may amount up to 3 months' salary for employees over 30 years of age, 4 months' salary for employees with at least 10 years of service; 6 months' salary for employees with at least 15 years of service.

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 2b (1), (2) ESEA

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • No provision on reinstatement in the ESEA.
      However the General Agreement, 1973 concluded by the Danish Employers' Confederation and the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions provides for reinstatement.

      See also: OECD employment protection legislation database, 2013, Denmark: "reinstatement orders are possible but rare" (available at: www.oecd.org/els/emp/oecdindicatorsofemploymentprotection.htm).

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Case management in the Danish Labour Court
      by Managing Judge Jørn Andersen, Head of Secretariate, 19.9.04, available at:
      hwww.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---dialogue/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_160035.pdf

      Summary of the Danish Labour Court and Labour administration system, available at:
      http://www.arbejdsretten.dk/generelt/labour-court.aspx

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire; tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • The Labour Courts have jurisdiction over cases involving workers covered by a collective agreement whereas ordinary Courts have jurisdiction over dismissal disputes involving those not covered by a collective agreement.

      In addition, special dismissal bodies have been set up by social partners for unfair dismissal cases for parties to collective agreements. Their decision can be appealed to ordinary courts.
      See Danielle Venn (2009), "Legislation, collective bargaining and enforcement: Updating the OECD employment protection indicators", p. 30. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/legislation-collective-bargaining-and-enforcement_223334316804

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Regulated by Arbitration Act No. 553 of 24 June 2005 as last amended in 2008.

    Information supplémentaire - 2017    

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