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République Tchèque

Sources et champ d'application - 2010    

Références Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): 20
  • Exclusion only applicable to collective dismissals: see definition of collective dismissal in art. 62 (1) LC.
    However, the rules on individual dismissals apply to all enterprises.

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; police; armée; magistrature
  • See sec. 5 (4) LC : "The labour relations of judicial trainees, public prosecutors, junior lawyers and employees, who perform state administration in administrative authorities shall only be subject to the Labour Code where it is so expressly laid down in this Code or in another Act".

    European Commission, Termination of Employment Relationship - Legal situation in the following Member States of the European Union: Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, 2007, [hereafter cited as: European Commission Study, 2007], p. 21: "There is a separate special regulation of employment (service) relationship in the following cases, where ordinary rules of the Labour Code do not apply: judges and judicial trainees, public prosecutor and their clerks, member of the security forces, members of the armed forces, (other) civil servants"

Types de contrats de travail - 2010    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

  • Sec. 35 LC

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    • Sec. 39 LC does not refer to any maximum number of successive FTC, but only to a maximum cumulative duration of 24 months.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 24 mois
    • General rule: sec. 39 (2): maximum 24 months.
      In addition, 6 months are necessary between 2 fixed-term contracts.
      However, this limitation (max. 24 months) does not apply in cases listed in sec. 39 (3), i.e.: when the FTC is concluded for the purpose of temporary replacement of an absent employee, when there are serious operational reasons on the part of the employer or reasons relating to the special nature of work to be performed provided that the reasons are specified in a written agreement between the employer and the trade union organization.
  • % de travailleurs sous CDD: 8.8 %
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2010    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
  • Sec. 50 (4) LC

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
  • Sec. 52 LC provides for a list of valid reasons for dismissal that relate to the worker's conduct, the worker's capacity, or economic reasons.

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; orientation sexuelle ; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; âge ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; accomplissement du service militaire ou civil ; langue; propriété; naissance; état de santé ; origine ethnique
  • No list of prohibited grounds in the LC but a general prohibition of "any form of discrimination in labour relations" (sec. 16(2) LC).
    There is however an express reference to non discrimination for "claiming rights ensuing from the labour relations in a lawful manner" (Sec. 14(2) LC)
    A list of prohibited grounds with relation to discrimination in labour relations is provided in sec. 4 (2) of the Employment Act (2004).

    Note that the adoption of an Anti-discrimination Act has been discussed at the Parliament but no agreement has been reached so far (2009).

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif; travailleurs exerçant un mandat électif ou une fonction politique
  • Sec. 53 (1) LC establishes a prohibition of notice during a "protection period". That applies to:
    * pregnancy
    * maternity and parental leave
    * recognized temporary inability to work due to illness or injury
    * military obligations
    * unpaid leave to exercise of a public office
    * night workers temporary unfit
    Note that except for pregnant women and employee on maternity or parental leave, the protection is not absolute (sec. 54 LC)
    Sec. 61 (2) LC: Special protection for trade union's representatives: mandatory consent of the trade union prior to dismissal.

Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2010    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

  • Sec. 50(1) LC

Délai de préavis:
  • Sec. 51 LC : "The notice shall be at least 2 months". No reference to the length of service.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 2 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Non

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    • Sec. 61 (1) LC. Notification is mandatory in both cases of ordinary dismissal and immediate termination (serious misconduct).

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    • However, according to sec. 61 (2), (3), (4) LC approval by the trade union is requested when the dismissal or the immediate termination concerns a trade union member. In the absence of consent, such dismissal is void unless ruled otherwise by the Court.

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2010    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Over a period of 30 days, at least:
    1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 100 employees
    2) 10% of employees out of a total of 101 to 300 employees
    3) 30 employees out of a total of more than 300 employees

    • Sec. 62(1) LC.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    • 30 days in advance: sec. 62 (2) LC.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    • 30 days in advance: sec. 62 (4) LC.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    • Sec. 62 (2), (5) LC.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    • No criteria listed in the legislation.
      However sec. 62 (2) e) and 62 (4) state that the selection criteria should be one of the elements to be communicated to the labour office and to the trade union within the framework of the process of consultation.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    • Sec 62 (3) LC refers to the purpose of consultation being "to reach an agreement, in particular with regards to measures aiming at prevention or reduction of collective dismissals, the mitigation of their adverse implications for employees, especially the possibility of their placement in suitable jobs at the other employer's places of work".
      However, the formal adoption of a social plan is not a requirement.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2010    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    • No statutory severance pay except in the event of a dismissal of an employee who is not allowed to perform his work due to an industrial injury or occupational disease (sec. 67(1) LC)
      Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
      • Sec. 67 LC: This section refers to "an amount of at least three times the average earnings" for economic dismissal.
      • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 3 mois

      Notes / Remarques
      1) dismissal based on the worker's conduct or capacity: no severance pay
      2) dismissal (individual and collective) for economic reasons: redundancy payment
      3) dismissal of an employee who is not allowed to perform his work due to an industrial injury or occupational disease: severance pay (at least 12 months) (sec. 67(1) LC)

      Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2010    

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      Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

      • Sec. 69 (1) LC

      Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

      • Sec. 69 (1) LC.
        As a consequence of a court's decision of the invalidity of termination of the employment relationship by the employer, continuation of that relationship is the rule, unless the employee has no interest in further continuation.

      Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

      Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

      • Sec. 72 LC refers to the competent Court. No labour courts in the Czech Rep.

      Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

      Information supplémentaire - 2010    

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      Profile of National Legislation covering Termination of Employment (no longer updated) »