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Bulgarie
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2016    

Références
  • Labour Code [LC], SG, No. 26 and No. 27, 1986, as subsequently amended up to 30.12.2016 (SG No. 105)
    [Note: The English version of the Labour Code (NATLEX) covers updates only until 2004. However, subsequent amendments have been reviewed by the researchers.
    The updated Labour Code is available in Bulgarian at: https://www.lex.bg/laws/ldoc/1594373121; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Employment Promotion Act, SG, No. 112, 2001, as subsequently amended up to 29.12.2015 (SG, No. 105)
    An updated version is available in Bulgarian at: https://www.mlsp.government.bg/ckfinder/userfiles/files/politiki/zaetost/zakonodatelstvo/ZAKON_za_nasyrcavane_na_zaetostta_12_2015.docx; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • Exclusion only applicable to collective dismissals: see collective dismissal definition in Supplementary provisions, § 1 (9) LC.
    The rules on individual dismissals apply to all enterprises.

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; police; armée; magistrature
Remarks:
  • No details on the scope of application in the LC.
    However see : Prof. Vassil Mrachkov, "Termination of employment relationships - The legal situation in Bulgaria", EU Commission, 2006, p. 14. Available at:
    ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=4625&langId=en

Types de contrats de travail - 2016    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 36 mois
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % de travailleurs sous CDD: 3.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2016    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • The Labour Code does not specify whether the employer shall provide reasons for dismissal.
    However, see:
    - Art. 328 LC: exhaustive list of 12 situations when dismissal with notice is authorized;
    - Art. 330 LC: exhaustive list of 8 situations when dismissal without notice is authorized.
    - Art. 190 LC lists authorized grounds for disciplinary dismissal.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 328 LC lists 12 situations when dismissal with notice is authorized.

    Art. 330 LC lists 8 situations when dismissal without notice is authorized. Authorized grounds disciplinary dismissal are listed in art. 190 LC.


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; responsabilités familiales; race; couleur; sexe; orientation sexuelle ; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; âge ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • See Art. 8 (3) LC
    See also art. 4 (1) together with art. 21 (on termination of employment) of the Protection from Discrimination Act, 2003.
    In addition, "differences in the contract term and duration of working time" are listed as prohibited grounds of discrimination.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée
Remarks:
  • Art. 333 (1), (3), (5), (6) LC
    * Art. 333 (1) LC lists the categories of workers for which dismissal can only take place after consent of the labour inspectorate has been obtained: mothers of children under 3 years or spouses of persons who have entered their regular military service, employees reassigned due to health reasons, employees suffering from certain diseases, employees on permitted leave.

    * Protection for trade union representatives is provided in art. 333 (1) LC. Prior consent of the trade union is required when dismissal is based on certain grounds (partial closing down of the entreprise or staff cuts, reduction of the volume of work, lack of qualities for efficient work performance, lack of qualifications following changes in the requirement, disciplinary dismissals).

    *Pregnant women can only be discharged under certain grounds such as "force majeure", closing down of the enterprise, refusal to follow the enterprise in the case of relocation. Prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required for disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).
    A women on maternity leave can only be dismissed when the enterprise is closing down (art. 333 (6) LC).


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2016    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 328 (1) LC

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 328 (1) together with art. 326 (2) LC
    * The notice period for termination of a contract of unlimited duration must be 30 days, unless a longer period has been agreed by the parties, but not longer than 3 months.
    *Note: the LC also provides that notice period for FTC shall amount to 3 months, but not more than the remaining period of the contract.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 30 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 30 jour(s) .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 220 LC

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • However pursuant to art. 333 (1) LC, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required :
      1) when the dismissal is based on certain grounds: partial closing down of the enterprise or staff cuts, lack of the qualities required for the performance of the work, lack of qualification following changes in the requirements for the job, disciplinary dismissals
      and
      2) for workers benefiting from special protection: mothers of children under 3 years, women whose husband are serving their compulsory military service, employees with reduced capacity for work who have been reassigned and disabled persons, employees suffering from certain diseases.

      For pregnant women, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required in case of disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2016    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    At least:
    1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 99 employees, over a period of 30 days
    2) 10% of employees out of a total of 100 to 299 employees, over a period of 30 days;
    3) 30 employees out of at least 300 employees, over a period of 30 days;


    Remarks:
    • Supplementary provisions, § 1 (9) LC.
      [Note that prior to the 2006 amendments, this definition also included the dismissal for economic reasons of "at least 20 workers regardless of the total number of workers and employees over a period of 90 days. This was deleted from the LC in 2006]

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 130a LC

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 24 of the Employment Promotion Act

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 130a LC

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • No approval by the admnistration required as such for collective dismissals.

      However, pursuant to Art. 25 of the Employment Promotion Act, in the course of the negotiation process, a team of representatives of the workers, the employer and the administration shall draft measures aimed at avoiding or mitigating the effects of the propose redundancy (employment placement, vocational training, alternative employment programmes). The draft shall then be submitted for approval to the Regional Employment Commission.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • Except when approval is foreseen under a collective agreement in dismissals due to staff cut or reduction of the volume of work: art. 333 (3) LC.

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    Remarks:
    • No selection criteria listed.
      Art. 130a LC only refers to criteria as one of the elements to be communicated to the workers' representatives for consultation.

      Note: Art. 329 LC provides that in case of partial closing down of an enterprise, in case of staff cuts or reduction of the volume of work, the employer shall be entitled to selection and in the interest of production, business may dismiss employees whose positions have not been made redundant, in order to retain employees of higher qualifications and better performance.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 25 of the Employment Promotion Act.
      This article refers to measures aiming at "employment placement intermediation, training for attainment of vocational qualification, alternative employment programmes" that have to be drafted by a team of representatives of the workers, the employer and the administration and to be submitted for approval to the Regional Employment Commission.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2016    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • No statutory severance pay except:
      - upon termination of employment due to an illness for employee of at least 5 years of service: 2 months' gross remuneration (art. 222 (2) LC);
      - upon termination after the employee has acquired the right to a pension : 2 months' pay or 6 months' pay for a job tenure of 10 years (art. 222 (3) LC).
      Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
      Remarks:
      • Not more than 1 month's salary following any individual or collective dismissal on economic grounds. [Art. 222 (1) LC]
      • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois
      • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1 mois

      Notes / Remarques
      1) Dismissal not based on economic reasons: no statutory severance pay except:
      - upon termination of employment due to an illness for employee of at least 5 years of service: 2 months' gross remuneration (art. 222 (2) LC);
      - upon termination after the employee has acquired the right to a pension : 2 months' pay or 6 months' pay for a job tenure of 10 years (art. 222 (3) LC).

      2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment.

      Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2016    

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      Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

      Remarks:
      • Art. 225 (1) LC

      Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
      Compensation for unlawful dismissal shall amount to the employer's gross remuneration for the period of unemployment caused by the dismissal but not for more than 6 months.

      Remarks:
      • Art. 225 (1) LC

      Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

      Remarks:
      • Art. 344 (1) LC. Right of the employee to demand reinstatement.

      Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

      Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

      Remarks:
      • Art. 344 (4) LC refers to district and regional courts.

      Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

      Durée de la procédure: 3 mois (légal(e))

      Remarks:
      • 3 months is the statutory timeframe for the first instance decision.

        Art. 344 (4) provides for a mandatory timeframe for consideration of labour disputes by the courts:
        * within 3 months following the receipt of the claim for the district court and;
        * within 1 month following the receipt of appeal by the regional court.

        Note: The action relating to termination of employment should be brought within 2 months as from the date of termination (art. 358 (1) LC).

      Information supplémentaire - 2016    

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