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> GOUVERNANCE - page d'accueil > EPLex: une base de données sur les législations de protection de l'emploi >

Turkménistan
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références
  • Labour Code, entered into force on 1st July 2009 (in Russian) as last amended in February 2019.

    Date: 18 Jan 2012; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues: directeurs
Remarks:
  • Group of workers excluded from Art.5 LC are:
    1) members of the enterprises’ boards of directors;
    2) workers under civil law contracts;
    3) other persons, if it is established by the legislation of Turkmenistan.

Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 28 LC: The probationary period cannot exceed 3 months for workers and 6 months for managerial employees.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Art. 18 LC
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 5 année(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 18 LC

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 40 and art. 44 LC


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 42 LC provides that the reasons for dismissal can be the following:
    - 1) liquidation of the enterprise or termination of activities by an individual employer;
    - 2) a reduction in the number or staff of workers, including in connection with changes in production technology, organization of labor, reduction in the volume of work;
    - 3) the employee’s inconsistencies with the position held or the work performed due to insufficient qualifications, including those confirmed by the certification results;
    - 4) change of the owner of the enterprise (in relation to the head of the enterprise, his deputies and the chief accountant) in accordance with the first part of Article 37 of this Code;
    - 5) absence from work for more than four months in a row due to temporary disability, not counting the period of maternity leave, unless the legislation of Turkmenistan establishes a longer term for maintaining a place of work (position) for a specific disease. For employees who have lost their ability to work due to labor injury or occupational disease, the place of work (position) is maintained until the restoration of working capacity or the establishment of disability;
    - 6) systematic non-performance by an employee without valid excuses of employment duties assigned to him by the employment contract or the internal labor regulations of the enterprise, if the employee has previously been subject to disciplinary measures;
    - 7) absenteeism, including absence from work without good reason for more than three hours during the working day;
    - 8) appearance at work in a state of alcoholic, narcotic or other toxic intoxication;
    - 9) the disclosure of secrets protected by the legislation of Turkmenistan (state, commercial, official and other), which became known to the employee in connection with the performance of his job duties;
    - 10) commission at the place of work of embezzlement of property, embezzlement, its deliberate destruction or damage established by a valid court verdict or decision of the body whose competence includes the imposition of an administrative penalty;
    - 11) violation by an employee of labor protection requirements, if this violation entailed grave consequences (work accident, accident, catastrophe) or deliberately created a real threat of such consequences;
    - 12) in case of revealing the fact of submission by the employee to the employer of forged documents or knowingly false information when concluding an employment contract;
    - 13) stipulated by the employment contract with the head of the enterprise, members of the executive body of the enterprise;
    - 14) in other cases established by this Code.


Motifs prohibés: grossesse; race; sexe; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; handicap; langue; propriété; lieu de résidence; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • Art. 7 LC: prohibition of discrimination in employment based on: nationality, race, sex, origin, property or employment status, residence, language, age, religion, political beliefs, party affiliation or lack of affiliation to any party.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs mineurs
Remarks:
  • Art. 241 LC
    Art. 257 LC


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 44 LC

Délai de préavis:
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • licenciement pour motif non non économique - 2 semaine(s).
      • licenciement économique - 2 mois.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 44(2) LC

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

      In addition, Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

      In addition, Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 54 LC: During collective redundancies, the workers with higher productivity and qualification have the preferential right to keep their job. At equal productivity and qualification, the preference not to be dismissed is given to such categories of workers as workers with the tenure of at least 10 years in the entreprise, people with disabilities, workers with two and more dependants, young specialists etc.

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2019    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 2 semaine(s)
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Art. 54 LC
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 2 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 56 LC

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie):
    Art. 56 LC: The judge is free to decide on compensation for unfair dismissal, whose amount cannot be less than three-month wages.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 56 LC

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Remarks:
    • Art. 370 LC established the order of creating a commission for labour disputes (collective).