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Sources et champ d'application - 2012    

Références
  • The Employment Relationship Act [ERA], 2002, No 42/02 as amended in 2007 by the Act No 103/07
    Date: 13 Nov 2007; voir le site internet »
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • - Undertakings with less than 20 employees are exempt from the procedural requirements applicable to collective dismissals. (see definition of collective dismissals in art. 96 ERA).
    - In addition, there are some exceptions or specific requirements for employers employing ten or less employees (referred to in the ERA as "smaller employer": art. 5 ERA). With regards to those employers:
    - a branch collective agreement may provide for shorter notice periods than those established by the law (art. 91 ERA);
    - a branch collective agreement can provide for the conclusion of fixed term contracts in situations other than those restrictively allowed by the ERA (art. 52 (2) ERA);
    - the obligation to check the possibility of finding another suitable job for an employee prior to his dismissal for economic reasons or capacity-related reasons does not apply (art. 88 ERA).

Catégories de travailleurs exclues: fonctionnaires; police; armée; directeurs
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 ERA: The Act applies to both private and public workers.
    However, specific regulations exist for the following categories:
    - Public servants (only those employed in a State body or in the administration of local communities) : see Public Servants Act (2005 consolidated text ): art. 159-163 PSA
    - Army: Defence Act (2004 consolidated text)
    - Police: Police Act (2006 consolidated text).

    In addition, in concluding a contract of employment with managers, the parties may differently regulate the rights and obligations including those relating to termination of employment (art. 72 ERA).


Réforme législative en cours
In September 2012, the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs published two important bills relevant to labour market reform. These are: the Employment Relationships Bill and and the Labour Market Regulation Bill. The Employment Relationships Bill which aims at introducing a unified employment contract is currently under discussion with the social partners.


Types de contrats de travail - 2012    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 6 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 125 ERA: The trial period may not last longer than 6 months. It can be extended in case of temporary absence from work.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Art. 52 (1) ERA contains an exhaustive list of situations when resorting to fixed-term contract is authorized.

      Note: In addition to those situations referring to temporary work, conclusion of a contract with managerial staff is also listed as valid reason for resorting to fixed-term contracts.
      Such limitations may not apply to employers employing 10 or less 10 workers, if so stipulated in a branch collective agreement: art. 53 (2) ERA.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • Art. 53 (2) ERA: No limitation on the maximum number of successive FTC. This provision refers to "one or more successive contracts". However, there is a limitation on the maximum cumulative duration which shall not exceed 24 months.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 24 mois
    Remarks:
    • Art. 53 (2) ERA: One or more successive FTC should not be concluded with the same worker and for the same job for an uninterrupted period exceeding 24 months.

      (Note: up to three months' interval between the conclusion of two contracts shall not be deemed an interruption for the purpose of defining an interrupted period: art. 53(4) ERA)

      Exception: This 2-year limitation does not apply, amongst others, to contracts concluded with managerial staff and temporary replacement of an absent worker.
      In addition see art. 53 (3) ERA (as amended in 2007): "The job from the previous paragraph can be prolonged for more than two years if the project introduces new programmes or new technologies in the working process".
  • % de travailleurs sous CDD: 16.7 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of second trimester 2012.
      This figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2012    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 86 (2) ERA: the notice of termination shall state the reason for termination and explain it in writing.
    Art. 88 (2) ERA: Reasons behind ordinary termination must be serious and substantiated.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 88 (1) ERA : list of reasons for ordinary termination.

    NB: The ERA distinguishes between "ordinary" and "extra-ordinary" termination.
    Ordinary termination shall be justified by one of the listed reasons related to the worker's conduct, capacity and economic reasons.
    Extra-ordination termination is in allowed in exceptional cases of severe violations of the employee's obligations exhaustively listed in art. 110 ERA (i.e criminal offence, gross negligence, absence due to imprisonment). No notice period is required in such cases. Specific rules relating to extra-ordinary dismissals are contained in art. 110-11 ERA and will not be further developed here.


Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; orientation sexuelle; religion; opinion politique; origine sociale; nationalité/origine nationale; âge; affiliation et activités syndicales; handicap; statut financier; congé parental; participation à une grève légale; état de santé; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • Art. 89 ERA lists unfounded reasons for termination.
    See also art. 81 ERA together with art. 6 ERA that list prohibited grounds for discrimination.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée; travailleurs seniors/à la veille de la retraite; travailleurs handicapés; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail
Remarks:
  • * Worker's representatives and trade union representatives: No dismissal without the prior consent of the body whose member they are (art. 113 ERA).
    * Older workers (over 55 years old): No dismissal for economic reasons without the consent of the worker until he fulfills the minimum conditions for acquiring the right to an old-age pension (art. 114 ERA). The 2007 amendment foresees the possibility for the employer to offer a new adequate employment in line with art. 88 of the ERA.

    * Workers with family responsibilities and pregnant women:
    Prohibition of dismissal during pregnancy, period of breastfeeding and parental leave (art. 115 ERA).

    * Workers with disabilities and workers absent due to illness or injury: art. 116 (1) and (2) ERA)


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2012    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 86 (1) ERA

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 92 ERA (as amended in 2007) establishes statutory minimum notice periods that vary according to the reason for dismissal and the length of service as follows:

    If the contract is terminated by the employer, then the notice periods are
    - 30 days if the length of service is less than 5 years;
    - 45 days if the length of service is at least 5 years;
    - 60 days if the length of service is at least 15 years;
    - 120 days if the length of service is at least 25 years.

    If the employer terminates the contract due to the worker's conduct (other than that entailing summary dismissal), then the notice period is one month.

    [Note that prior to the 2007 amendment, the LC distinguished between dismissals for economic reasons and dismissal for reasons of incapacity and provided for higher notice periods for economic dismissals, as follows:
    - Less than 5 years of service: 30 days (business reasons) / 30 days (incapacity).
    - At least 5 years of service: 45 days (business reasons) / 45 days (incapacity).
    - At least 15 years of service: 75 days (business reasons) / 60 days (incapacity).
    - At least 25 years of service: 150 days (business reasons) / 120 days (incapacity).]
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 30 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 30 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 30 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 30 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 45 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 45 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • licenciement non lié à la conduite du travailleur - 60 jour(s).
      • licenciement fondé sur la conduite du travailleur (à l'exclusion de la faute grave) - 1 mois.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 94 ERA

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, in both cases of ordinary and summary dismissal of a trade union member, if so requested by the worker, the employer is required to notify the said union: art. 84 ERA.
      The trade union can oppose termination according to the modalities laid down in art. 85 ERA.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • As a general rule. approval by worker's representatives is not required.

      However, when dismissal concerns a trade union member, the trade union may oppose termination for absence of substantiated reason or violation of procedural requirements. As a result of such opposition, the effects of dismissals are suspended until the court or an arbitrator has ruled on the matter (art. 85 ERA).
      Furthermore, worker's and trade union representatives enjoy special protection and cannot be dismissed without prior consent of the body they represent. (art. 113 ERA).

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2012    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    1) Within a period of 30 days, at least:
    - 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 99 employees;
    - 10% of employees, out of a total of 100 to 299 employees;
    - 30 employees out of at least 300 employees.
    2) Within a period of 90 days, at least 20 employees notwithstanding of the total number of employees.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 96 ERA

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 97 (2) ERA

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 98 ERA.

      Note : collective dismissal can only take place after at least 30 days have expired from the notification to the Employment Service.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 97 (1) ERA

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, consent is required prior to dismissal of a worker's or trade union representative for economic reasons, except when that worker refuses an offer of suitable alternative employment: art. 113 (1) ERA.

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 100 ERA lists criteria to be taken into account. These are: worker's education, qualification and capacities, working experience, seniority, job performance, health condition, social condition, family responsibilities. This article does not specify any order in those criteria. However, under the same criteria, priority shall be given to the preservation of the employment relationship of those employees who are in a worse social condition.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 99 ERA provides for an exhaustive list of elements to be included in the compulsory "dismissal programme for redundant workers". This includes: measures for preventing or limiting to the highest degree the termination of the employment relationship which requires that the employer checks the possibility of continuing employment under modified conditions (art. 99 (1), second indent ERA).
      In addition, the dismissal programme elaborated by the employer must include information on measures such as offer for employment with another employer, assurance of pecuniary aid, purchase of insurance period. (art. 99 (1), fourth indent).

      See also art. 97 (2) ERA: the employer consults beforehand with the trade unions to reach an agreement on measures to avoid and limit the number of redundant workers as well as measures aiming at mitigating the adverse affects.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 102 ERA: preferential right to reemployment for one year.

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2012    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • According to art. 109 ERA, any employee dismissed for economic reasons or reasons related to his capacity is entitled to severance pay amounting to:
      - 1/5 of the employee's monthly wages in the last three months for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for more than one and up to five years;
      - 1/4 of the same basis for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for the period from five to fifteen years;
      - 1/3 of the same basis for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for the period exceeding fifteen years.
      Unless otherwise stipulated in the collective branch agreement, severance pay cannot exceed 10 month's wages (art. 109 (4) ERA).

      Employees who are dismissed for reasons related to their conduct are not entitled to severance pay.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0.4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0.8 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 2.25 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 5.16 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Same as severance pay: art. 109 ERA provides for severance pay including for economic reasons, as follows:
      - 1/5 of the employee's monthly wages in the last three months for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for more than one and up to five years;
      - 1/4 of the same basis for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for the period from five to fifteen years;
      - 1/3 of the same basis for each year of employment with the employer, if employed by the same employer for the period exceeding fifteen years.
      Unless otherwise stipulated in the collective branch agreement, severance pay cannot exceed 10 month's wages (art. 109 (4) ERA).
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0.4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0.8 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 2.25 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 5.16 mois

    Notes / Remarques
    1) Dismissal based on the worker's conduct: no severance pay
    2) Dismissal based on the worker's capacity: statutory severance pay
    3) Economic dismissal (individual and collective): statutory redundancy payment = severance pay

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2012    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie):
    Up to 18 monthly wages.

    Remarks:
    • Based on average monthly wages in the last three months before termination: Art. 118 ERA (as amended in 2007).

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 118 ERA: As a consequence of the court's decision finding the dismissal illegal, the worker is restored to his position unless he does not wish to continue the employment relationship and/or the court considers that continuation would no longer be possible.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Article 26 (2) of the Labour and Social Courts Act, stipulates that there is a pre-trial phase in which the President of the Judicial Senate works toward mediation/conciliation. If this fails, proceedings move to the adjudicatory phase.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Art. 204 ERA

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 205 ERA: A collective agreement may provide for the settlement of individual labour disputes by arbitration.
      See also art. 228 ERA: Mediation by the labour inspector.