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Viet Nam

Sources et champ d'application - 2012    

  • Labour Code of the Social Republic of Viet Nam [LC], 23 June 1994 as amended by Law 35-2002-QH10 of 2 April 2002
    Date: 02 Apr 2002; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Decree No. 44-2003-ND-CP making detailed provisions and providing guidelines for implementation of a number of articles of the Labour Code with respect to labour contracts
    Date: 09 May 2003; voir le site internet »
  • Decree No. 47/2010/ND-CP of May 06, 2010, on administrative sanctioning of violations of the Labor Law
    Date: 06 May 2010; voir le site internet »
  • Decree No. 133/2007/ND-CP of August 8, 2007, providing detailed regulations and guidelines on the laws amending the Labour Code regarding Labour dispute resolution
    Date: 08 Aug 2007; voir le site internet »
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
  • Art. 2 LC

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; police; armée; magistrature; directeurs; membres des coopératives; membres d'organisations politiques
  • Art. 2 LC: The LC Code applies to all workers, and organizations or individuals employing workers under a labour contract in all economic sectors and all forms of ownership.
    It also applies to trainees and apprentices, domestic workers.

    Civil servants and public employees, elected, appointed or assigned officials, members of units of the people's armed forces and the police, members of people's organizations and other political and social organizations, and members of cooperatives are not covered by the LC (art. 4 LC, and art 2, 2003 Decree).
    Members of boards of management of enterprises are not covered by labour contracts (art. 2(d), 2003 Decree).

Réforme législative en cours
A new Labour Code was adopted on June 18th, 2012. However, it entered into force on May 1st, 2013.

Notes / Remarques
Changes brought by the new Labour Code (in force since May, 1st 2013, will be reflected in the EPLex profile for 2013.

Types de contrats de travail - 2012    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 2 mois

  • Art. 7, Decree 2003: The employer and the employee may agree on a probationary period not exceeding 60 days in respect of highly specialized technical work, 30 days in respect of work that requires a secondary skill level, and 6 days in respect of other work.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    • Art. 27 (3) LC forbids the use of employment contracts for a seasonal job or a specific job with a duration of less than 1 year to undertake a job of a permanent nature, except for the temporary replacement of a worker performing military obligation, on parental leave or for other reasons.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2
    • See art. 27 LC and Art. 4 (4) Decree 2003: Upon expiry of a FTC, a new FTC may be concluded for a period not exceeding 36 months; and if after that period the worker continues to work, an indefinite term contract of employment must be signed.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 6 année(s)
    • Art. 27 LC and 4 (4) Decree 2003.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2012    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
  • Art. 43 LC: The employer shall state in writing the reasons for the termination of the labour contract in the worker's labour book and shall be responsible for returning the labour book to the employee.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
  • Art. 38 LC and art. 12, Decree 2003
    Article 38 LC
    "1. An employer shall have the right to terminate unilaterally a labour contract in the following circumstances:
    (a) The employee repeatedly fails to perform the work in accordance with the terms of the contract;
    (b) An employee is disciplined in the form of dismissal in accordance with the provisions of article 85 of this Code;
    (c) Where an employee suffers illness and remains unable to work after having received treatment for a period of twelve (12) consecutive months in the case of an indefinite term labour contract, or six consecutive months in the case of a definite term contract with a duration of twelve (12) months to thirty six (36) months, or more than half the duration of the contract in the case of a contract for a specific or seasonal job. Upon the recovery of the employee, the employer shall consider the continuation of the labour contract;
    (d) The employer is forced to reduce production and employment after trying all measures to recover from a natural disaster, a fire, or another event of force majeure as stipulated by the Government;
    (dd) The enterprise, body, or organization ceases operation."

    Art. 12 Decree 2003: "The provision that employers are entitled to unilaterally terminate their labor contracts in cases prescribed at Points a and d, Clause 1, Article 38 of the amended and supplemented Labor Code is stipulated as follows:
    1. Laborers constantly fail to fulfill their tasks under labor contracts, meaning that they fail to fulfill the labor norms or assigned tasks due to subjective reasons, and are booked or warned in writing at least twice in a month, but later still fail to redress their shortcomings.
    The extent of failure to fulfill the work shall be inscribed in labor contracts, collective labor agreements or labor regulations of the units.
    2. Force majeure reasons mean the cases where due to the requests of competent State bodies of the provincial or higher level, to enemy sabotage or epidemics which cannot be overcome, the production and/or business are subject to change or shrink."

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial; grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; sexe; religion ; origine sociale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; prendre légalement ses congés
  • Prohibited grounds for dismissal: art. 39 and 111 LC.

    See also:
    - the general prohibition of discrimination in employment based on sex, race, social class, belief or religion (art. 5 LC).
    - the prohibition of discriminatory treatment towards a worker who joins a trade union. (art. 1, 2) of the Trade Union law, 1990)

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales; travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail
  • Art. 39, Art. 111: Prohibition to dismiss:
    - a worker under treatment as a result of sickness, labour accident or occupational disease except in case of force majeure;
    - pregnant women, women on maternity leave, and women taking care of a child under 12 months of age, except for business reasons.
    Art. 155(4) LC: In order to dismiss a member of the executive committee of the local trade union, the employer must obtain the consent from this committee.

Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2012    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : aucune forme particulière requise

  • Art. 38 (3) LC stipulates that the employer shall notify the worker of the dismissal but does not specify whether such notification shall be written.

Délai de préavis:
  • Art: 38 (3) LC: The employer must give at least 45 days' notice for an indefinite duration contract, 30 days' notice for a fixed-term contract, and three days' notice for a seasonal or specific-task contract. These requirements apply to all forms of unilateral termination, except when the employer is using dismissal as a disciplinary measure.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • travailleurs permanents - 45 jour(s).

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    • Art. 41 (4) LC

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    • No general obligation to notify.
      However, before dismissing an employee due to poor performance, disciplinary measures, or illness, the employer must consult with the executive committee of the enterprise trade union with the aim of coming to an agreement. In case of disagreement, the two parties must report to the local branch of the State administration of labour: art. 38 (2) LC.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    • Art. 38 (2) LC: Before an employer can dismiss an employee due to poor performance, disciplinary measures, or illness, he must consult with the executive committee of the enterprise trade union with the aim of coming to an agreement.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2012    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No statutory definition of collective dismissal.
    Specific procedural requirements apply to redundancy of a number of employees following organizational restructuring or technological changes.

    • Art. 17 (2) LC.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    • Art. 17 (2) LC.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    • Art. 17 (2) LC.
      See also art. 6, Decree 2003.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    • Art. 17 (2) LC

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    • Art. 17(2) LC: seniority, professional skills, family situation, and other factors.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    • Art. 17 (1) LC: Re-training obligation

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2012    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    • Art. 42 (1) LC and 14 Decree 2003.
      Upon termination of employment, a worker who has been employed for more than one year is entitled to severance pay, which shall amount to half a month's wages plus other benefits, if any, for each year of service. Severance pay shall be paid within 7 day from the termination date.

      However, a worker will not be entitled to severance pay if he has been dismissed as a disciplinary measure (except in case of excessive absence) or if he is receiving a monthly pension.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 10 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    • Retrenched workers are entitled to a loss of employment allowance which shall amount to one month¿s wages for each year of employment, but not less than the equivalent of two months' wages.
      Labour Code, Art. 17(1), Art. 42 (worker in business, office, or organisation); Decree 2003, Art. 14.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 10 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 20 mois

    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

    • Art. 17 (1) LC and 14 (1) Decree 2003

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2012    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    1) Compensation in lieu of reinstatement requested by the employee: severance pay + loss of wages during the absence from work caused by the dismissal + plus at least two months' wages.

    2) Compensation in lieu of reinstatement requested by the employer: severance pay + loss of wages during the absence from work caused by the dismissal + plus at least two months' wages + an agreed additional amount of compensation.

    3) Compensation, in addition to reinstatement: loss of wages during the absence from work caused by the dismissal + plus at least two months' wages.

    • Art. 41 (1) LC

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    • Art. 41 (1) LC: reinstatement is mandatory unless the worker does not want to return to work.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    • See art. 158, 162- 166 LC.
      Preliminary mandatory conciliation by the Labour Conciliatory Council is prescribed prior the judicial settlement of an individual labour dispute (art. 162- 165 LC) and collective disputes (art. 168-170 LC).
      However, disputes concerning disciplinary dismissal or unilateral termination of the employment contract can be settled directly by the Court without having to go trough the conciliation process. (art. 166 (2) LC).

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire

    • Art. 166 LC

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    • Not applicable to individual labour disputes. However, compulsory arbitration is foreseen for the settlement of collective labour disputes : art. 170-172 LC.

    Information supplémentaire - 2012    

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