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Sources et champ d'application - 2019    

Références
  • Labour Protection Act, B.E. 2541, 1998 [LPA]
    Date: 12 Feb 1998; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 2), B.E. 2551, 2008 [LPA-No2]
    Date: 15 Feb 2008 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 3), B.E. 2551, 2008 [LPA-No3]
    Date: 15 Feb 2008 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 4) of December 2010, B.E. 2553, in force since July 2011.
    Date: 27 Dec 2010 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 5), B.E. 2560 of January 2017
    Date: 23 Jan 2017 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 6), B.E. 2560 of August 2017
    Date: 27 Aug 2017 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Protection Act (No. 7), B.E. 2562 of April 2019
    Date: 04 Apr 2019; voir le site internet »
  • Civil and Commercial Code: Book 3, Title VI: Hire of Services, 1985, as amended to Code (No.18), B.E.2551, 2008 [CCC]
    Date: 2008 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Act on Establishment of Labour Courts and Labour Court Procedure, B.E. 2522, 1979 [ALC]
    Date: 30 Apr 1979 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Act on Establishment of Labour Courts and Labour Court Procedure (No. 2), B.E. 2550 of August 2007
    Date: 30 Aug 2007
  • Act on Establishment of Labour Courts and Labour Court Procedure (No.3), B.E. 2558 of December 2015
    Date: 04 Dec 2015
  • Act on Establishment of the Court of Appeal for Specialized Cases, B.E. 2558 of December 2015
    Date: 04 Dec 2015
  • Labour Relations Act, BE 2518, 1975 [LRA]
    Date: 1975 (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues: fonctionnaires; travailleurs agricoles
Remarks:
  • The LPA (which is the main piece of legislation on termination of employment) excludes from its scope public servants and State enterprise employees (art. 4 LPA).
    Public servants and State employees are covered by the State Enterprise Labour Relations Act of 2000.
    Similarly, the Labour Protection Act does not apply to agricultural and home workers (see Ministerial Regulation No. 9 (1998) B.E. 2451 issued under the Labour Protection Act). While, home workers are covered by the Home Workers Protection Act of 2010.
    - The LRA does not apply to the central administration, the provincial administration, the local administration (including the Bangkok Metropolitan and Pattaya City Administration), State enterprises (Art. 4, LRA).

Notes / Remarques
A new Act amending the Labour Protection Act [Labour Protection Act (No. 7)] was adopted in April 2019. Those changes deal with various issues; for example, art.17/1 - termination of employment without prior notice, art.118 - establishing some new rates of severance pay (the length of service more than 10 years but less than 20 years and the length of service more than 20 years), article 120 – relocation of employer’s establishment, etc.


Types de contrats de travail - 2019    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: aucune limitation

Remarks:
  • The LPA does not regulate the duration of the probationary period.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
    Remarks:
    • See art. 118 LPA, art. 581 CCC and art. 17 and 17/1 LPA, as amended by LPA- No.2 of 2008 and LPA-No.7 of 2019.
      Art. 17/1 LPA deals with termination without prior notice.
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Fixed term contracts are defined in art. 118 LPA in connection with the right to severance pay which does not apply to employees with a fixed-term contract.
      Pursuant to the same provision fixed term employment under is allowed for employment in specific projects which do not fall within not the normal activities of the employer's business or trade, and which required a definite to start and end the work, or for occasional work or for seasonal work. Such work must be completed within a period of not more than two years, and the employer shall enter into a written contract with the employee upon commencement of employment.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No limitation on the maximun number of FTCs.
      According to art. 581 of the CCC, "if after the end of the agreed period the employee continues to render services and the employer knowing thereof does not object, the parties are presumed to have made a new contract on the same terms, but either party can terminate the contract by giving notice."
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 2 année(s)
    Remarks:
    • See art 118 LPA: Fixed term work must be completed within a period of not more than two years.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2019    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Non
Remarks:
  • No general obligation to inform the employee of the grounds of dismissal except in the event of an economic dismissal (art. 121 LPA) and of a summary dismissal for misconduct (art. 119 LPA, as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 18))


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): aucun
Remarks:
  • Valid grounds (justified dismissal): none but if there is no valid ground stipulated in the law, the employees may be entitled to receive severance pay, payment in lieu of notice or compensation for unfair dismissal

    - Either party may terminate an employment contract of indefinite duration provided that notice requirements (or pay in lieu of notice) are complied with (art. 17 LPA, as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 8)) and art. 17/1 LPA, as amended by LPA-No7 of 2019).
    - In addition, art. 121 LPA allows the employer to terminate the an employee due to the restructuring of the work unit, the production process, or the distribution or provision of services, resulting from the introduction or change of machinery or technology thus making it necessary to reduce the number of employees. In such cases, specific notifications requirements apply (see below under "Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons")
    - Lastly, the law authorizes disciplinary dismissals without notice. According to art. 583 CC, an employer may dismiss an employee who wilfully disobeys or habitually neglects the lawful commands of his or her employer; absents himself or herself from service; is guilty of gross misconduct; or otherwise acts in a manner incompatible with the due and faithful discharge of his or her duties.
    See also Art. 119 LPA, as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 18)) which provides that severance pay is not due an employee whose dismissal arises because he or she:
    * has been dishonest on duty;
    * has deliberately committed a criminal offence against the employer; * has intentionally caused damage to the employer;
    * has violated working rules or lawful orders from the employer;
    * has been absent for three consecutive working days without justification;
    * has caused serious damage to the employer due to negligence; or
    * has been sentenced to imprisonment


Motifs prohibés: grossesse; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; affiliation et activités syndicales
Remarks:
  • - The LRA prohibits as an unfair practice the termination of employment by the employer (art. 121 LRA):
    * on the ground that the employee is a member of the trade union;
    * of certain persons (listed below) carrying out functions of the labour relations machinery for certain acts related to the fulfilment of their duties; and
    * on the ground that the employees or the labour union are about to undertake such acts.
    The persons specifically referred to are employees, employees' representatives, committee members of the labour union or of the labour federation. The specified acts are calling a rally, filing a petition, submitting a claim, filing a lawsuit or negotiating it, appearing as a witness before or producing evidence to competent officials under the law on labour protection, the Registrar, labour dispute conciliators, labour dispute arbitrators, labour relations committee members, or the labour court.
    - On the prohibition of termination of employment on the ground of pregnancy, see art. 43 LPA.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs
Remarks:
  • - The employer cannot, except with the approval of the Labour Court, terminate employment of, or reduce the wages of, or punish a member of an employees' committee (art. 52 LRA). Such committees are set up by employees in establishments employing at least 50 employees (art. 45 LRA).
    - It is generally unlawful for an employer to terminate the employment or transfer the duties of the employees, their representatives, the committee members, subcommittee members, or members of the labour union, or committee members or subcommittee members of the labour federation, who are involved in the presentation, negotiation or reconciliation of a request to renegotiate an agreement on conditions of employment. Termination or transfer is, however, lawful if the persons concerned dishonestly perform their duties or wilfully commit a criminal offence against the employer; wilfully cause damage to the employer; neglect work for three consecutive working days without a suitable reason; or violate the rules, regulations or lawful orders of the employer, provided the employer has issued a warning in writing. The written warning is not required in severe cases (art. 31 LRA). The same protection applies to the same employees while an agreement on conditions of employment or equivalent award is in effect, with one additional category of permitted dismissal (i.e. when the employee commits any act of instigation, encouragement or persuasion to violate the agreement on conditions of employment or equivalent arbitration award) (art. 123(5) LRA).


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2019    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks:
  • Notification to the worker to be dismissed: oral or written
    Art. 17 LPA, as amended by LPA-No.2 of 2008 (art. 8): The prior notice of termination can be given in writing.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • -Dismissal not based on economic reasons:
    See art. 17 LPA, as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 8): " Where the period is not specified in the contract of employment, an employer or an employee may terminate the contract by giving advance notice in writing to the other party at or before any due date of wage payment in order to take effect on the following due date of wage payment, with no requirement for advance notice of more than 3 months".
    Therefore, if a worker is paid on a monthly basis, the notice period shall be at least 1 month.
    See also art. 582 CCC.
    - Dismissal for economic reasons:
    According to art. 121 LPA, the employer shall give at least a 60-day notice to the labour inspection when he or she intends to terminate an employee due to the restructuring of the work unit, the production process, or the distribution or provision of services, resulting from the introduction or change of machinery or technology.

    Notice period:
    o Economic dismissal – 60 days
    o Monthly paid workers – non-economic dismissal – 1 month
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • licenciement économique - 60 jour(s).
      • travailleur payés au mois - licenciement pour motif non économique - 1 mois.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

    Remarks:
    • See art. 17(3) as amended by LPA-No2 of 2008 (art. 8) and art. 121 LPA (economic dismissals). See also art. 582(2) CCC.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, the Labour Relations Act requires the approval of the Labour Court when the employer intends to dismiss (and otherwise punish or reduce wages of) a member of an employees' committee (art. 52 LRA).
      Such committees are set up by employees in establishments employing at least 50 employees (art. 45 LRA).

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2019    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No statutory definition of collective dismissal (no number specified). The LPA only refers to termination of an employee due to the restructuring of the work unit, the production process, or the distribution or provision of services, resulting from the introduction or change of machinery or technology thus making it necessary to reduce the number of employees.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 121 LPA and Art. 122 LPA.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Non

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 121 LPA: the employer must inform the Labour Inspection Officer and the employees whose employment is to be terminated of the date of termination of employment, the reasons for termination of employment and the names of the employees not less than sixty days before the date of termination of employment.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2019    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 90 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 90 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 180 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 180 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 300 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 400 jour(s)
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 90 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 90 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 180 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 180 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 450 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 700 jour(s)

    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique: • See art. 122 LPA: In the event of termination for economic reasons (those listed in art. 121 LPA), an employee with at least 6 years of continuous service shall receive in addition to severance pay, a special compensation equal to 15 days' wages for every year of employment, with a maximum amount equal to 360 days' wages.
    With respect to this additional payment, a period of work of more than 180 days is counted as 1 full year of service.

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2019    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 49 ALC: If the labour court rules that the dismissal was unfair but considers that the cooperation between employer and employee has been disrupted beyond repair, the court may fix an amount of damages as compensation to be paid by the employer in lieu of reinstatement by taking into consideration the age of the employee, the length of service, the hardship of the employee at the time of dismissal, the cause of the dismissal and the compensation the employee is entitled to receive.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 49 ALC: If the labour court considers that an employee has been unfairly dismissed, it may order reinstatement at the level of remuneration applying at the time of dismissal.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 38 ALC provides that "when the plaintiff and the defendant appear in court, the labor court shall mediate the parties to reach an agreement or a compromise". If the parties fail to reach an agreement or a compromise, the labor court shall proceed with the trial.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail; autorité administative

    Remarks:
    • - Disputes regarding termination of employment must be brought before a labour court (see arts. 8 and 49 ALC)
      - However, if an employee was dismissed following an unfair practice (i.e termination on the grounds of trade union activities or membership), he may file a complaint with the Labour Relations Committee within 60 days of the violation (art. 124 LRA). This Committee will issue an award and an order within a further 90 days, The employee can also file a criminal complaint against the employer, but only after the Labour Relations Committee has passed an arbitration award and the employer has failed to comply with the Committee's order. (art. 127, LRA). An employer who violates the prohibition of termination of employment contained in the LRA (art. 121, 122 and 123 LRA on unfair practices) shall be liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding 6 months and/or to a fine not exceeding ten thousands Baths (see arts. 158 and 159 LRA)
      [The Labour Relations Committee is established within the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (art. 8, LRA) to settle particular labour disputes with an award. It is composed of between eight and 14 members, three of whom must be employers' representatives and three employees' representatives (art. 37, LRA).]

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Remarks:
    • No information found.

    Information supplémentaire - 2019    

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    Liens

    ILO Profile of National Legislation covering Termination of Employment (last updated in 2007) »