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Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références
  • Labour Code [LC], dated 10 January 1997 last amended by Royal Kram No. 0707-020 of 20 July 2007
    Date: 20 Jul 2007; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 LC

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; travailleurs domestiques; police; armée; magistrature; gens de la mer; personnel navigant aérien
Remarks:
  • Art. 1 LC

    Apprentices are not excluded from the LL, however termination of apprenticeship contracts is regulated by specific provisions (Arts. 63-64 LC).


Réforme législative en cours
Reform on going since 2005


Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 68 LC: the probationary period cannot exceed three months for regular employees, two months for specialized workers and one month for non specialized workers.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • See Art. 66 and 67 LC.
      No limitation on the reasons for concluding a FTC. However there are some procedural requirements: a FTC must be in writing. If not, it becomes a contract of indeterminate duration.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • Art. 67, 5) LC: it can be renewed one or more times, as long as the renewal does not exceed the max. duration of 2 years.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 24 mois
    Remarks:
    • Art 67, 8) LC, confirmed by the Arbitration Council: if the initial FDC plus any extensions exceed two years, the contract automatically becomes a contract of indefinite duration.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 74 LC.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : tout motif légitime
Remarks:
  • Art. 74 LC: no dismissal can take place without a valid reason relating to the worker's aptitude or behavior, based on the requirements of the operation of the enterprise, establishment or group.
    Art. 83 LC on serious offences entailing summary dismissal.


Motifs prohibés: congé de matérnité; race; couleur; sexe; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; nationalité/origine nationale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; participation à une grève légale; naissance
Remarks:
  • Art. 12 LC; art. 279 LC (trade union activities); art. 182 LC (maternity leave); art. 333 LC (participation in a strike).


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité
Remarks:
  • Art. 293-295 LC
    The dismissal of a shop steward or a candidate for shop steward can take place only after authorization from the Labor Inspector. Protection extended to former shop steward (art. 282 LC).

    Art. 182 LC: "The employer is prohibited from laying off women during their maternity leave or at a date when the end of the notice period would fall during the maternity leave". This protection only applies during maternity leave and not the entire pregnancy.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • 1) For workers under a contract of unspecified duration:

    Art. 75 LC: The minimum period of a prior notice is set as follows:
    - 7 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is less than six months;
    - 15 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is from six months to two years;
    - 1 month, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer then two years and up to five years.
    - 2 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than five years and up to ten years.
    - 3 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than ten years.

    2) Specific rules apply to fixed term contracts.
    Art 73 LC: If the contract has a duration of more than six months, the worker must be informed of the expiration of the contract or of its non-renewal ten days in advance. This notice period is extended to fifteen days for contracts that have a duration of more than one year.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 15 jour(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 3 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 77 LC.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21 LC : compulsory written notification to the Ministry of Labour every time an employer hires or dismisses a worker.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • Except for worker's representatives: art. 293 LC.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    The Labour Code refers to mass lay-off resulting from a reduction in an establishment's activity or an internal reorganization but does not specify the number of employee concerned.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • See art. 95 LC: notification to the Labour Inspector in the event of mass lay-off.
      See also art. 21 LC: notification of every dismissal (not specific to collective dismissal)

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • No approval required. However, in exceptional cases, Minister in charge of Labor can suspend the lay off for 2 x 30 days (Art. 95 LC).

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC (professional qualifications, seniority within the establishment, and family burdens of the workers).

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC: The employer must solicit the worker's representatives for suggestions, primarily, on measures taken to minimize the effects of the reduction on the affected workers.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC: during 2 years.

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • Article 89 LC: If the worker is dismissed for a reason other than serious misconduct, the employer must pay an indemnity for dismissal. The amount of the indemnity depends upon the employee's length of continuous service:
      - for employment from 6 to 12 months: 7 days wages and benefits;
      - for employment over 1 year: 15 days wages and benefits for each year of employment, up to a maximum of six months' wages.
      This only applies to contracts of an unspecified duration.

      Note that art. 73 LC provides that: at the expiration of a fixed-term contract (the end of the term or completion of the task), the employer must pay the employee severance pay which may be fixed by collective agreement but should not in any case be less than 5 per cent of the total wages paid during the length of the contract.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 7 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 7 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 15 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 60 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 75 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 150 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 6 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • No specific redundancy payment: same severance pay.
      See Article 89 LC: If the worker is dismissed for a reason other than serious misconduct, the employer must pay an indemnity for dismissal. The amount of the indemnity depends upon the employee's length of continuous service:
      - for employment from 6 to 12 months: 7 days wages and benefits;
      - for employment over 1 year: 15 days wages and benefits for each year of employment, up to a maximum of six months' wages.
      This only applies to contracts of an unspecified duration.

      Note that art. 73 LC provides that: at the expiration of a fixed-term contract (the end of the term or completion of the task), the employer must pay the employee severance pay which may be fixed by collective agreement but should not in any case be less than 5 per cent of the total wages paid during the length of the contract.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 7 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 7 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 15 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 30 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 60 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 75 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 150 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 6 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 94 LC: The amount of damages is fixed by the Court, in light of the local custom, the type and importance of the services rendered, the employee's seniority and age, any deductions or payments made to a retirement plan, and other circumstances establishing the existence and the extent of the harm incurred. Instead of providing proof of damages in court, the worker can ask for a lump sum payment equal in amount to the indemnity for dismissal (Art. 91 LC).

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 385 LC

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    Remarks:
    • Preliminary conciliation is only an option for individual disputes.
      Art. 300 LC: Prior to any judicial action, an individual dispute can be referred for a preliminary conciliation, at the initiative of one of the parties, to the Labour Inspector of his province or municipality.

      However, conciliation is mandatory for collective (interest and rights) disputes : art. 305 LC.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • See Article 387 LC: Labour courts shall be created that have jurisdiction over the individual disputes occurring between workers and employers regarding the execution of the labour contract or the apprenticeship contract.

      However, labour courts have not been established yet. Pending the creation of those Courts, ordinary courts have jurisdiction over labour disputes pursuant to art. 389 LC.

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Settlement by the Arbitration Council is compulsory when conciliation failed for collective disputes (rights and interest): art. 309 LC.
      The arbitration council has developed a body of reliable jurisprudence on termination of employment.
      http://www.arbitrationcouncil.org/eng_index.htm

    Information supplémentaire - 2013    

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    Liens

    Former ILO Termination of Employment Digest - Cambodia (last updated in 2006) »