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Tunisie
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références
  • Labour Code [LC], Act No 66-27 of 30 April 1966, consolidated version including amendments up to July 1996 (Act No. 96-62)
    [Code du travail, dans sa teneur révisée au 15 juillet 1996 - in French]
    Date: 15 Jul 1996 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Act No. 2006-18 of 2 May 2006 modifying some provisions of the Labour Code
    (Loi n° 2006-18 du 2 mai 2006, modifiant et complétant certaines dispositions du code du travail - available in French)
    Date: 02 May 2006 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Act No. 2007-19 of 2 April 2007 modifying some provisions of the Labour Code
    (Loi n° 2007-19 du 2 avril 2007 portant modification de certaines dispositions du Code du travail - available in French)
    Date: 02 Apr 2007 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Act No. 2011-4 of 3 January 2011 supplementing the provisions of Article 234 of the Labour Code)
    (Loi n° 2011-4 du 3 janvier 2011 complétant les dispositions de l'article 234 du Code du travail)
    Date: 03 Jan 2011 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Law-Decree no. 2011-51 of 6 June 2011 amending the Labour Code
    (Décret-loi n° 2011-51 du 6 juin 2011, portant modification du Code du travail)
    Date: 06 Jun 2011 (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Remarks:
  • Pursuant to art. 1 LC, the LC applies to all industrial, commercial and agricultural establishment and their branches, regardless of their nature, whether public or private, religious or secular, with professional or charitable purposes.

Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; travailleurs domestiques; gens de la mer
Remarks:
  • The LC applies to all enterprises in the private and public sector (art. 1 LC).
    Specific provisions for public servants are contained in Law No. 83-112 of 12 December 1983 and Law No. 85-78 of 5 August 1985. People working at sea are covered by the Code of Maritime Labour promulgated in 1967.
    In Tunisia, household employees (domestic workers) do not benefit from the protective provisions of the LC. Their relationship with their employer continues to be subject to the general provisions of civil contract law. (See: F. Mehri: "Tunisia", in R. Blanpain (ed.): International encyclopaedia for labour and industrial relations, (The Hague, Kluwer Law International, 1999), Vol. 12, p. 44.)


Conventions collectives
Framework Collective Agreement (FCA) concluded on 20 March 1973 as amended.


Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 2 année(s)

Remarks:
  • Art. 18 LC provides that in every contract of employment, the duration of the probationary period is governed by collective or individual agreement, by custom or by the law.
    The LC does not set out any maximum or minimum duration for the probationary period.
    However, the duration of the probationary period is regulated by the Collective Framework Agreement (as amended). Art. 10 of the CFA stipulates that such trial period shall be:
    - 6 months for workers ("agents d'exécution")
    - 9 months for first line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise")
    - 1 year for executives.
    The trial period can be renewed once.

    [2 years = probationary period for executives (1 year) renewed once]

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : raisons matérielles et objectives
    Remarks:
    • Art. 6-4(1) LC: FTCs can be concluded in the following instances:
      - undertaking new work;
      - extraordinary increase of workload;
      - temporary replacement of a permanent worker who is absent for work or whose contract has been suspended;
      - implementing urgent safety measures;
      - carrying out seasonal work or other similar activities.
      However, art. 6-4(2) LC states that FTCs can be concluded in situations other than the ones above-listed, upon agreement between the parties, provided the maximum duration does not exceed 4 years (including renewals).
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • - Art. 6-4(1) LC: FTCs concluded for valid reasons: no limitation on the number of renewals and on the maximum duration set out by the law.
      Art. 6-4(2) LC: FTCs concluded in other cases, upon agreement of the parties: no limitation on the number of renewals provided that the maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs does not exceed 4 years.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 4 année(s)
    Remarks:
    • - Art. 6-4(1) LC: FTCs concluded for valid reasons: no limitation regarding the maximum duration set out by the law.
      Art. 6-4(2) LC: FTCs concluded in other cases, upon agreement of the parties: the maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs shall not exceed 4 years.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Oui
Remarks:
  • Art. 14ter LC.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : tout motif légitime
Remarks:
  • Art. 14ter LC: a dismissal is unfair ("abusif") if it is not justified by a genuine and serious reason.

    - One of the real and serious reasons for dismissal is serious misconduct. A list of serious misconduct able to justify dismissal is set out in art. 14quater of the LC. Serious misconduct includes, inter alia:
    * wilful damage to the property of the undertaking;
    * wilful reduction of the product volume or product quality;
    * non-observance of rules related to safety and health;
    * neglect of the duty to take necessary measures to assure personal security or to safeguard confidentiality;
    * disobedience of legitimate orders;
    * bribe-taking;
    * theft;
    * turning up for work in a state of intoxication;
    * consumption of alcohol at the workplace;
    * absence or desertion of the workplace without good cause or the employer's permission;
    * violence or threats against colleagues or other persons during working hours;
    * divulging trade secrets; and
    * refusal to lend assistance in case of imminent danger to the firm or persons at the workplace.
    - Dismissal may also be effected for economic and technological reasons (art. 21 LC).


Motifs prohibés: grossesse ; congé de matérnité; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; affiliation et activités syndicales ; accomplissement du service militaire ou civil
Remarks:
  • - Art. 166 LC: specifical procedural rules apply to the dismissal of a workers' representative or a trade union representative.
    In order to dismiss those workers, the employer must follow a specific procedure (i.e. submitting the dismissal to the decision of the competent labour inspector and complying with his or her decision), except when the existence of a real and serious reason justifying dismissal is proved by a court which entertains jurisdiction (art. 166 LC and 169bis LC added by the Act No. 2007-19).
    - Art. 20(2) LC: An employer may not dismiss a woman on the grounds that she has suspended her work during the period before and after her confinement. If she is dismissed, the employer is liable to pay damages provided that she informed her employer of the reason for her absence. Notice of dismissal is prohibited up to a maximum of 12 weeks after maternity leave if the woman produces a medical certificate that she is incapable of returning to work because of an illness arising out of her pregnancy or confinement.
    -Art. 19 LC: performing military duties cannot be a cause of termination of employment.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs effectuant leur service militaire/service alternatif
Remarks:
  • - Art. 166 LC: specific procedural rules apply to the dismissal of a workers' representative or a trade union representative: the employer must submit the dismissal to the decision of the competent labour inspector and complying with his or her decision except when the existence of a real and serious reason justifying dismissal is proved by a court which entertains jurisdiction (art. 166 LC and 169bis LC added by the Act No. 2007-19).
    - Art. 20(2) LC: An employer may not dismiss a woman on the grounds that she has suspended her work during the period before and after her confinement. If she is dismissed, the employer is liable to pay damages provided that she informed her employer of the reason for her absence. Notice of dismissal is prohibited up to a maximum of 12 weeks after maternity leave if the woman produces a medical certificate that she is incapable of returning to work because of an illness arising out of her pregnancy or confinement.
    -Art. 19 LC: performing military duties cannot be a cause of termination of employment.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 14bis LC.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Employers and employees are required to give one month's notice in writing. If there are provisions which result from a contractual or collective agreement, general practice or vested rights that require a longer period of notice, these provisions are applied (art. 14bis LC). For example, the period of notice for journalists (art. 398 LC) and commercial travellers and sales representatives (art. 410 LC) varies between one and three months.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 1 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • The LC is silent with respect to pay in lieu of notice.
      However, art. 16 of the CFA stipulates that, in the event notice is not observed, the amount of compensation to be paid must at least be equal to wages payable for the length of notice period or for the remaining period of notice (art. 16 FCA).

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Remarks:
    • Except for protected workers.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • Except for protected workers.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    Dismissal of all or part of the permanent staff for economic or technical reasons.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21 LC.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • - In Tunisia, every employer who contemplates a collective dismissal shall first notify the matter to the labour inspectorate which will attempt conciliation between the parties (art. 21-3 LC).
      - If conciliation is unsuccessful, the labour inspectorate transmits the file to the Commission for the Supervision of Dismissals (commission de contrôle des licenciements) composed of a trade union and an employers' association representatives and chaired by the chief of the territorial labour inspectorate (art. 21-5 LC).
      The Commission issues an advisory opinion in which it expresses its views on whether it agrees with or rejects the intended dismissal and can make proposals for alternative solutions, such as redeployment programmes for employees, re-orientation of the company's activity towards new products, temporary suspension of all or part of the activity, revisions of conditions of work (e.g. reduction of working time) or early retirement (art. 21-9 LC).
      When the Commission is not consulted on the dismissals, except in cases of agreement between the parties or force majeure, these dismissals are unlawful (art. 21-12 LC).


    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • - In Tunisia, every employer who contemplates a collective dismissal shall first notify the matter to the labour inspectoratewhich will attempt conciliation between the parties (sec. 21, LC).
      - If conciliation is unsuccessful, the labour inspectorate transmits the file to the Commission for the Supervision of Dismissals (commission de contrôle des licenciements) composed of a trade union and an employers' association representatives and chaired by the chief of the territorial labour inspectorate (art. 21-5 LC).
      The Commission issues an advisory opinion in which it expresses its views on whether it agrees with or rejects the intended dismissal and can make proposals for alternative solutions, such as redeployment programmes for employees, re-orientation of the company's activity towards new products, temporary suspension of all or part of the activity, revisions of conditions of work (e.g. reduction of working time) or early retirement (art. 21-9 LC).
      When the Commission is not consulted on the dismissals, except in cases of agreement between the parties or force majeure, these dismissals are unlawful (art. 21-12 LC).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • The Commission for the Supervision of Dismissals (commission de contrôle des licenciements) is composed of a trade union and an employers' association representatives and chaired by the chief of the territorial labour inspectorate (art. 21-5 LC).
      The Commission issues an advisory opinion in which it expresses its views on whether it agrees with or rejects the intended dismissal and can make proposals for alternative solutions, such as redeployment programmes for employees, re-orientation of the company's activity towards new products, temporary suspension of all or part of the activity, revisions of conditions of work (e.g. reduction of working time) or early retirement (art. 21-9 LC).
      When the Commission is not consulted on the dismissals, except in cases of agreement between the parties or force majeure, these dismissals are unlawful (art. 21-12 LC).

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Remarks:
    • - In Tunisia, every employer who contemplates a collective dismissal shall first notify the matter to the labour inspectorate which will attempt conciliation between the parties (art. 21-3 LC).
      - If conciliation is unsuccessful, the labour inspectorate transmits the file to the Commission for the Supervision of Dismissals (commission de contrôle des licenciements) composed of a trade union and an employers' association representatives and chaired by the chief of the territorial labour inspectorate (art. 21-5 LC).
      The Commission issues an advisory opinion in which it expresses its views on whether it agrees with or rejects the intended dismissal and can make proposals for alternative solutions, such as redeployment programmes for employees, re-orientation of the company's activity towards new products, temporary suspension of all or part of the activity, revisions of conditions of work (e.g. reduction of working time) or early retirement (art. 21-9 LC).
      When the Commission is not consulted on the dismissals, except in cases of agreement between the parties or force majeure, these dismissals are unlawful (art- 21-12 LC).
      However the employer is not bound by the opinion of the Commission and can carry out an economic dismissal even in the event of a negative opinion.
      See: MZID, Nouri, "Droit du travail, entreprise et flexibilité de l'emploi", Novembre 2009, p. 12.

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21-9 LC: As regards the reduction in personnel for economic reasons, the Commission shall take into account the worker's professional qualification, his/her family status and the length of service in the company.
      (See also art. 17 CFA)
      Note also that according to art. 166 bis LC (added by Act n° 2001-19), in the event of an economic dismissal, workers' representatives and trade union representatives have priority to retain their jobs.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • The commission for the supervision of dismissals (commission de contrôle des licenciements) can make proposals for alternative solutions, such as redeployment programmes for employees, re-orientation of the company's activity towards new products, temporary suspension of all or part of the activity, revisions of conditions of work (e.g. reduction of working time) or early retirement (art. 21-9 LC).

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Workers who are dismissed for economic reasons are given priority in re-hiring (with the same wages as prior to the dismissal), if the enterprise decides to re-hire workers with the same professional skills. This right can be exercised within one year. The order for re-hiring workers is determined according to the worker's seniority (art. 21-13 LC).

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • Except for serious misconduct, every employee bound by a contract of employment for an indefinite term and dismissed after the expiration of the probationary period is entitled to receive a severance allowance, calculated on the basis of one day's salary (which is paid at the moment of the dismissal) for each month of effective service in the same enterprise (art. 22 LC).
      Severance pay cannot exceed three months' salary, whatever the duration of effective service has been. However, collective agreements can raise the amount of compensation.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 6 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 9 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 12 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 24 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 48 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 60 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 3 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Severance pay covers dismissals for economic reasons (no specific redundancy payment): art. 22 LC.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 6 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 9 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 12 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 24 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 48 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 60 jour(s)
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 3 mois

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • See art. 23bis LC.

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    - If the dismissal is not justified by a genuine and serious reason, compensation varies from one or two months' salary for each year of service, up to a maximum of three years' salary (art. 23bis LC).
    The existence and the extent of the employee's losses are determined by the court, taking into account the worker's qualifications, his or her length of service in the firm, age, remuneration, family situation, the impact of dismissal on his or her retirement, compliance with the specified procedures and any special circumstances.

    - If the dismissal is justified by a genuine and serious reason, but has been effected without observing the procedures prescribed by the law or by collective agreements, the dismissal is considered unfair (abusif"), but the amount of damages is limited to an amount between one and four months' salary (art. 23bis LC).

    - The amount of damages for unfair termination of a contract of employment for a specified period corresponds to the payment due for the remaining contract period or for the remaining work left to perform (art. 24 LC).

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

    Remarks:
    • A worker who is unfairly dismissed cannot claim to be reinstated into the enterprise. Compensation is the only remedy for unfair dismissal (art. 23 LC).

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Preliminary mandatory conciliation before the Labour Court (Conseil de prud'hommes): art. 207 LC.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • A specialized labour court (Conseil de prud¿hommes) which is of tripartite composition has jurisdiction over individual labour disputes. Appeals against its decisions are heard by the ordinary Courts of Appeal (arts. 183 and 221 LC).

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Information supplémentaire - 2013    

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    Liens

    MZID, Nouri, "Droit du travail, entreprise et flexibilité de l'emploi", Novembre 2009 »

    Former ILO termination of employment legislation digest - Tunisia country profile (last updated in 2007) »