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Nigéria
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références
  • Labour Act [LA] of 1974 as amended, Chapter 198 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990
    Date: 1990; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; police; armée; directeurs; gens de la mer; membres de la famille de l'employeur; personnel navigant aérien
Remarks:
  • The LA only applies to a 'worker' which is defined as any person who has entered into a contract (of service) with an employer, whether the contract is for manual or clerical work, or is express or implied, or oral or written (sec. 91(1) LA). The LA definition also excludes:
    * any person not employed for the purposes of the employer's business;
    * persons exercising administrative, executive, technical or professional functions;
    * members of the employer's family (also excluded by sec. 21 of the LA);
    * representatives, agents and commercial travellers, to the extent their work is carried out outside the employer's permanent workplace;
    * any person to whom articles or materials are given out to be made up, cleaned, washed, altered, ornamented, finished, repaired or adapted for sale in his own home or on other premises not under the control or management of the person who gave out the articles or the material; or
    * any person employed in a vessel or aircraft to which the laws regulating merchant shipping or civil aviation apply.
    In addition, members of the armed forces and police are excluded from the LA (sec. 89(2)).


Conventions collectives
Collective agreements regulating redundancy exist in some economic sectors.


Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: aucune limitation

Remarks:
  • There is no maximum statutory probationary period.
    The LA requires the employer to give his/her employees a written statement specifying the term of employment within 3 months form the beginning of a worker's period of employment (sec. 7(1) LA).
    Note that since the LA does not exclude probationary employees from its ambit, the statutory notice periods (see below) also apply to probationary employees.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Non
    Remarks:
    • Employment contracts are governed by the contract law (common law). That means that according to the principle of freedom of contract, the conditions and terms of the contract depend on the will of the parties.
      The LA only provides that the date of expiry of fixed-term contract must be specified other things in the written contract of employment which shall given to the employee no later than three months after the beginning of employment (sec. 7(1)d) LA).
      In addition the common law position that contracts for a fixed term or fixed amount of work expire according to their terms is codified in sec. 9(7)(a) of the LA. There are no further statutory regulations of fixed-term contracts.
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory regulations providing for limitations on the number of renewals.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory regulations providing for a maximum duration of successive FTCs.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Non
Remarks:
  • No statutory obligation to inform the worker of the grounds of termination.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : aucun
Remarks:
  • - Under Nigerian Law, employment contracts can be terminated at will. This principle of common law has been codified in sec. 11(1) of the LA which provides that: "(1) Either party to a contract of employment may terminate the contract on the expiration of notice given by him to the other party of his intention to do so".
    - The LA (sec. 11(5)) also expressly retains the common law right of an employer to summarily dismiss an employee for gross misconduct. In addition, the LA also the employer's ability to dismiss on the grounds of redundancy. 'Redundancy' is defined as "an involuntary and permanent loss of employment caused by an excess of manpower"(sec. 20 LA).
    It is worth noting that according to secondary sources, there have been developments in the case law which contrast with the principle of termination at will. See: Chioma Kanu Agomo, 'Part I. Individual Employment Relations' (August 2010), in Prof. Dr R. Blanpain, Prof. Dr M. Colucci (Eds.), International Encyclopaedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations (Kluwer Law International BV, The Netherlands), p. 23, para. 272: According to sec. 7(4) of the National Industrial Court Act (2006), in exercising its jurisdiction or any powers conferred upon it by its Act or any other enactment or law, the Court is to consider 'good or international best practice in labour or industrial relations'.
    The National Industrial Court has used this provision in the area of termination of employment and stated in the Pengassan case, that " it is no longer fashionable in industrial relations law and practice to terminate an employment relationship without adducing any valid reason for such termination'.


Motifs prohibés: grossesse ; congé de matérnité; affiliation et activités syndicales
Remarks:
  • - Sec. 9 (6) b) LA prohibits the dismissal of worker
    "(i) by reason of trade union membership, or
    (ii) because of trade union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of the employer, within working hours, or
    (iii) by reason of the fact that he has lost or been deprived of membership of a trade union or has refused or been unable to become, or for any other reason is not, a member of a trade union."
    - Sec. 54(4) LA prohibits the employer from giving a notice of dismissal to a woman during her maternity leave (6 weeks before the delivery of the child and 6 weeks after). This prohibition also apply to a women who is absent from her work for a longer period as a result of illness certified by a registered medical practitioner to arise out of her pregnancy or confinement and to render her unfit for work.




Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité
Remarks:
  • Sec. 54(4) LA prohibits the employer from giving a notice of dismissal to a woman during her maternity leave (6 weeks before the delivery of the child and 6 weeks after). This prohibition also apply to a women who is absent from her work for a longer period as a result of illness certified by a registered medical practitioner to arise out of her pregnancy or confinement and to render her unfit for work.


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Sec. 11(3) LA: Any notice for a period of one week or more shall be in writing.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Sec. 11(2) LA sets out statutory minimum notice periods as follows:
    * for less than three months of service, one day;
    * for three months to two years of service, one week;
    * for two to five years of service, two weeks; and
    * for more than five years of service, one month.
    The above periods are statutory minima which can be improved upon by collective agreements or contracts of employment.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 1 semaine(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 1 semaine(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an
      • 1 semaine(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 2 semaine(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 2 semaine(s) .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 1 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 1 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 11(6) LA.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No statutory definition of collective dismissal (no number specified)
    The LA only defines redundancy as "involuntary and permanent loss of employment caused by an excess of manpower".

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 20(3) LA.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Non

    Remarks:
    • No mandatory consultations with the trade union or worker's representatives in the event of redundancy. The employer is only required to inform then of the reasons for and the extent of the anticipated redundancy (sec. 20(1)(a) LA).


    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 20(1)(a) LA: In the event of redundancy, the employer shall inform the trade union or workers' representative concerned of the reasons for and the extent of the anticipated redundancy.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 20(1)(b) LA: the principle of "last in, first out" shall be adopted in the discharge of the particular category of workers affected, subject to all factors of relative merit, including skill, ability and reliability.

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Non

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

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    Indemnité de licenciement:
    Remarks:
    • No statutory severance pay.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois
    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • No statutory redundancy pay.
      Sec. 20 LA provides that in the event of redundancy:
      "(1)(c) the employer shall use his best endeavours to negotiate redundancy payments to any discharged workers who are not protected by regulations made under subsection (2) of this section;
      (2) The Minister may make regulations providing, generally or in particular cases, for the compulsory payment of redundancy allowances on the termination of a worker's employment because of his redundancy".
      No such regulations have been adopted so far.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

    Notes / Remarques
    There is no general statutory severance pay or redundancy pay, although there is provision for the Minister of Labour to enact regulations providing for severance pay to redundant workers (pursuant to sec. 20(2) of the LA). As of 2010, no such regulations have been adopted.
    Severance pay is often regulated by the contract of employment and sectoral (branch) collective agreements. Severance pay is usually calculated depending on the length of service and the last salary of the worker.

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Remedies for unlawful termination (breach of contract) or wrongful dismissal without notice are limited to damages for the equivalent amount the employee would have been entitled to, had the contract not been unlawfully terminated. Therefore, in the event of unlawful termination, the employee is entitled to compensation equivalent to what the employee would have earned during the notice period.
      In the event of wrongful dismissal without notice (for gross misconduct), the damages awarded corresponds to the amount the worker would have earned if he or she had continued working under the employment contract until this contract was lawfully terminated.
      Nigerian law excludes damages for injured feelings (following the English case of Addis v. Gramophone Co. [1908] AC 488.)

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Reinstatement is only available in limited circumstances (in particular, when the termination was based on the employee's trade union activities).

      See: Chioma Kanu Agomo, 'Part I. Individual Employment Relations' (August 2010), pp. 39¿72, in Prof. Dr R. Blanpain, Prof. Dr M. Colucci (Eds.), International Encyclopaedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations (Kluwer Law International BV, The Netherlands), pp. 62-63, paras. 158-159:
      " The regular courts have consistently declined employee's request for reinstatement as appropriate remedy for wrongful termination (see Chukwuma v. Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd (1993) 4 NWLR 512; Sule v. Nigerian Cotton Board (1985) 2 NWLR 17; New Nigeria Bank Ltd v. Oniovosa (1995) 7 NWLR 691)"
      This principle applies to the private sector, reinstatement is an available remededy for wrongful termination in the public sector.
      The National Industrial Court has recognized that reinstatement can be ordered in two cases: the first one being when the termination is the result of the trade union activities of the employees prohibited under sec. 9(2) LA, the second one being (in line with the ordinary courts rulings) when an office or employment has a 'statutory flavour', which means that its conditions of service are provided for and protected by statute or regulations and any person holding that office or in that employment enjoys a special status. If the procedure laid down by the applicable statute for dismissing such a person is not complied with, then the dismissal will be null and void, and the person will be reinstated.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    Remarks:
    • No information found.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : juridiction ordinaire ; tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Until the adoption of the National Industrial Court Act (2006), individual employment claims (including on wrongful terminations) were only handled by ordinary court. However the 2006 Act now confers jurisdiction to the National Industrial Court over individual employment disputes.

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Only trade disputes can be referred to the Industrial Arbitration Panel. This institution does not generally deal with individual or rights disputes unless these disputes are part of a trade dispute. A trade dispute includes any "dispute or difference between employers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment of any person".
      In any cases, an individual employment dispute can always be settled by private arbitration if the parties so agree.

    Information supplémentaire - 2013    

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