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Sources et champ d'application - 2013    

Références
  • Labour Act [LA], Act No. 651 of 2003
    (in force since 31 March 2004)
    Date: 08 Oct 2003; voir le site internet » (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Labour Regulations, 2007 (L.I. 1833)
    (in force since 31 July 2007)
    Date: 28 May 2007 (voir dans NATLEX »)
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : police; armée; personnel pénitentiaire; services de sécurité étatiques
Remarks:
  • *Art. 1 LA: army, police, security and intelligence agencies, prison personnel are excluded from the scope of application of the Labour Act.

    *Art. 66 LA: the provisions on termination of employment do not apply to workers engaged for specified period or specified work; workers on a probationary period; workers engaged on casual basis.

Types de contrats de travail - 2013    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: aucune limitation

Remarks:
  • No statutory maximum duration. The Labour Act refers to a "reasonable duration". Probationary period is generally provided in collective agreement

    *Art. 66 LA refers to workers serving a probation or qualifying period of employment of reasonable duration determined in advance.
    *Art. 98 d) LA : A collective agreement may include provisions on the period of probation and conditions on probation.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Non
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contracts.
      Only temporary and casual employment are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

      (Note: Art. 78: "temporary worker" means a worker who is employed for a continuous period of not less than one month and is not a permanent worker or employed for a work that is seasonal in character; "casual worker" means a worker engaged on a work which is seasonal or intermittent and not for a continuous period of more than 6 months and whose remuneration is calculated on a daily basis".)
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Notes / Remarques
The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contract.
Only temporary and casual workers are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2013    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Non
Remarks:
  • No legal provision requiring justification to the employee.
    See however art. 63 (4) a) LA:
    "A termination may be unfair if the employer fails to prove that the reason for the termination is fair".


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 62 LC: "A termination of a worker's employment is fair if the contract of employment is terminated by the employer on any of the following grounds:
    (a) that the worker is incompetent or lacks the qualification in relation to the work for which the worker is employed;
    (b) the proven misconduct of the worker;
    (c) redundancy under section 65;
    (d) due to legal restriction imposed on the worker prohibiting the worker from performing the work for which he or she is employed".


Motifs prohibés: grossesse ; congé de matérnité; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; race; couleur; sexe; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; handicap; statut financier ; origine ethnique
Remarks:
  • Art. 63 LA.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: aucun groupe protégé

Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2013    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 17(3) LA: Notice of termination must be in writing.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • Art. 17 (1), (2) LA:
    * The notice period varies according to the length of the contract as follows:
    - 1 month's notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of 3 years or more;
    - 2 weeks' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of less than 3 years;
    - 7 days' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract from week to week.
    * A contract of employment determinable at the will of the party may be terminated at the close of anyday without notice.

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 17 (1) and 18 (4) LA.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2013    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No legal definition. The LA refers to "the introduction of major changes in production, programme, organization, structure or technology of an undertaking that are likely to entail terminations of employment of workers in the undertaking".

    Remarks:
    • Art. 65 LA. No reference to any number of employees concerned.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 65 (1) b) LA.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 65 (1) a) LA: 3 months in advance.

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 65 (1) b) LA.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 65 (1) b) LA: measures aiming at averting dismissals and mitigating their adverse effects such as finding alternative employment must be examined during consultation with the trade union.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2013    

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    Notes / Remarques
    1) Individual dismissals (not based on economic reasons): no severance pay.
    2) Economic dismissals: redundancy payment subject to negotiation between the employer and the worker or the trade union concerned. (Art. 65 (4) LA)

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2013    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 64 (2) c) LA.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Art. 64 (2) a) LA.

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • Art. 64 LA.
      The competent body is the National Labour Commission. It shall exercise adjudicating and dispute settement functions in complete independence (art. 138 LA). Moreover, in settling an industrial dispute, the Commission shall have the same enforcing powers as the High Court and enjoy the same priviledges and immunities in regard to its proceedings (art. 139 LA).

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Mediation: art. 154 LA.
      Arbitration: art. 157 LA.

    % de litiges relatifs au licenciement par raport au nombre total de litiges: 51.7 %

    Remarks:
    • Figure for the year 2008.
      This figure includes:
      - Summary dismissals (21.2%)
      - Unfair terminations (23.9%)
      - Redundancy/lay-Off/ Severance pay (6.6%)

      Source: Annual Report of the National Labour Commission for the year 2008

    Information supplémentaire - 2013    

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    Liens

    Former ILO termination of employment legislation digest - Ghana country profile (last updated in 2007) »

    National Labour Commission website »
    Labour legislation, arbitration awards and NLC annual reports available.