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Egypte
 


Sources et champ d'application - 2017    

Références
  • Labour Law [LL], No. 12 of 2003.
    Date: 07 Apr 2003 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Law No. 180 of 2008 amending Certain Provisions of the Labour Law No. 12 of 2003 (not available in English in electronic format).
    [This law amends art. 70, 71, 71 of the LL on dispute resolution. In particular, "the committee" is to be replaced by "the labour court" wherever it is mentioned in the principal law.]
    Date: 22 Jun 2008 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Decree No. 984 of 2003 concerning the formation of local committees for deciding the close-down requests, and the central committee for complaints for the decisions of these committees.
    Date: 11 Jun 2003 (voir dans NATLEX »)
  • Law No. 18 of 2015 concerning the Civil Service [Civil Service Law]
    Date: 12 Mar 2015; voir le site internet »
Champ d'application
Taille des entreprises exclues (≤): aucune
Catégories de travailleurs exclues : fonctionnaires; travailleurs domestiques; membres de la famille de l'employeur
Remarks:
  • The LA does not apply to:
    * public servants employed by State agencies, public establishments and local authorities;
    * domestic workers and the like;
    * employer's family members whom the employer is in charge of.
    (Article 4, LA)


Réforme législative en cours

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.

Note: The Egyptian Parliament is currently working on a reform of the Labour Law, which is set to be finished by the end of 2017, see at: https://dailynewsegypt.com/2017/05/01/new-proposed-labour-law-arouses-controversy/, and https://dailynewsegypt.com/2017/04/19/622420/


Types de contrats de travail - 2017    

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Durée maximale de la période d'essai: 3 mois

Remarks:
  • Art. 33 LL.

Contrat à durée déterminée (CDD):
  • CDD reglementés: Oui
  • Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD : aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitations on the use of FTCs found in the LL.
  • Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitations on the use of FTCs found in the LL.
      See art. 106 LL: By express agreement of the two parties, a FTC may be renewed several times.
  • Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitations on the use of FTCs found in the LL.
      Art 106 LA: by express agreement of the two parties, a FTC may be renewed several times.
      See also art 105 LA: a FTC is deemed renewed for an indefinite period if both parties continue to abide by it after its date of expiry, exception made for foreign workers.

Conditions de fond du licenciement (motifs autorisés et prohibés) - 2017    

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Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement : Non
Remarks:
  • No express obligation to provide reasons for dismissing an employee.


Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié) : conduite du travailleur; capacité du travailleur; motifs économiques
Remarks:
  • Art. 110 LL: The employer may not terminate the employee's contract of indefinite duration except for reasons listed in art. 69 LL or in case of the incompetence of the employee according to the internal regulations of the employer. Art. 69 provides a list of reasons (9) considered to be serious misconduct and justifying summary dismissal. A worker is deemed to have committed a serious offence if he/she has:
    - assumed a false identity or submitted false documents;
    - acted negligently, causing the employer considerable loss, provided the employer informs the competent authorities of the incident within 24 hours of becoming aware of it;
    - despite having received a previous written warning, failed to observe written instructions displayed in a prominent place, compliance with which is necessary to ensure the safety of the workers and of the establishment;
    - been absent without a valid reason for more than 20 days a year, or for more than ten consecutive days, provided that the worker is first warned in writing by the employer after ten days' absence in the former case and after five days in the latter;
    - divulged professional secrets concerning the enterprise employing him/her, which caused serious damages to the enterprise;
    - been competing with the employer in the same field of activity;
    - been found in a state of obvious drunkenness or under the influence of drugs within working hours;
    - assaulted the employer or the employer's representative, or has committed a serious act of violence against any of his/her superiors during or in connection with his/her work;
    - not respected the rules on strikes prescribed by the LL.

    Art. 120 LL lists reasons which shall not be considered as "legitimate and adequate justifications for termination".
    Art. 122 LL regulates the right to compensation for "unjustified termination" (termination without a legitimate and adequate justification) by the employer.
    In addition, there are specific provisions authorizing termination of the contract by the employer in certain circumstances (termination in the event of the worker's total incapacity: art. 124 LL, termination due to the worker's illness provided that he or she has exhausted sick leave entitlement: art. 127, termination because the worker reaches the retirement age: art. 125 LL, termination in the event the of conviction to custodial sentences: art. 129 LL).
    In addition, the LL provides for a specific regime in the event terminations for economic reasons (art. 196 to 201 LL).


Motifs prohibés: grossesse ; congé de matérnité; responsabilités familiales; avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur; maladie ou accident professionel temporaire; couleur; sexe; religion ; opinion politique ; origine sociale ; affiliation et activités syndicales ; prendre légalement ses congés
Remarks:
  • See art. 120 LL which provides a list of reasons that shall not be considered as legitimate and adequate justifications for termination.
    In addition, see art. 92 LL on the prohibition to dismiss an employee during maternity leave.
    According to art. 127 LL, termination of employment is not possible for reasons of the worker's illness, unless he/she has exhausted sick leave entitlement as determined by the Social Insurance Law, in addition to his/her annual leave. The employer has to notify the worker of the contemplated dismissal fifteen days before the end of the workers' leave entitlement.


Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs; femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité; travailleurs avec une invalidité consolidée
Remarks:
  • - Not all the workers' representatives are protected. The Trade Unions Act No. 35/1976 (as amended) only protects members of the trade union boards from suspension or dismissal, except pursuant to a court decision (Art. 46).

    - The employer cannot dismiss a woman during maternity leave (Article 92, LL).

    - While the worker's total incapacity entails termination of the employment relationship; if the incapacity is partial, the employment relationship shall not be terminated unless it is demonstrated that there is no other available work which can be satisfactorily performed by the employee (art. 124 LL).


Conditions de forme / procédure du licenciement individuel - 2017    

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Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur : écrite

Remarks:
  • Art. 110 LL.

Délai de préavis:
Remarks:
  • As regards the termination of an open-ended employment contract, either party shall observe a notice period which varies according to the employer's length of service as follows:
    - 2 months if the worker's uninterrupted period of service with the employer is less than 10 years, and
    - 3 months if that period exceeds 10 years (Art. 111 LL).
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans
      • 2 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans
      • 3 mois .
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans
      • 3 mois .

    Indemnité compensatrice de préavis : Oui

    Remarks:
    • See art. 118 LL.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Non

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Before dismissing a worker on disciplinary grounds (listed in art. 69 LL), the employer needs to submit a request to the Labour Court which shall decide on the worker's dismissal within 15 days from the date of the first session (art. 71 LL, as amended in 2008). [Note that prior to the adoption on the 2008 amendment, the decision to dismiss a worker as a sanction for serious misconduct was not taken by the Labour Court but a special committee established by the 2003 LL for these purposes and which consisted on two judges, the head of the concerned Directorate of Manpower or his/her representative, a representative of the Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions; and a member of a concerned employers' organisation).

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Notes / Remarques
    - Under the LL, as amended in 2008, there is a special procedure for dismissal on disciplinary grounds.
    Where a worker is accused of an offence for which the appropriate disciplinary penalty is dismissal, the employer must, before deciding to dismiss him/her, submit a request to do so to the Labour Court which can either grant authorization or refuse the dismissal. The decision shall be taken within 15 days. (art. 68, 69, 71 LL as amended in 2008).
    - This procedure is not applicable to a dismissal based on the worker's inefficiency which is governed by specific regulations (see art. 110 LL)

    Conditions de forme / procédure des licenciements collectifs pour motif économique - 2017    

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    Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés):
    No definition of collective dismissal in the LL. The LL establishes a specific regime for closing down the enterprise of reducing its size or activity.

    Remarks:
    • See art. 196 to 201 LL.

    Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs) : Oui

    Remarks:
    • Under the LL and the Prime Minister Decree No. 984 of 2003, if contemplating redundancies, the employer must submit a request for closing the enterprise or reducing its size or activity to a committee established for this purpose. In the request to the committee, the employer must provide information including the reasons for the contemplated terminations, and the number and categories of workers likely to be affected (art. 196 and 197 LL). The committee in charge of deciding on such request must consist of a representative nominated by the General Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions, a representative of an employers' organisation nominated by the concerned organisation, a technical and economic representative from the General Authority for Investment, and a representative from the National Social Insurance Authority. The chair is the director of the Manpower and Emigration Directorate.
      The committee must prepare an argued decision, adopted by a majority vote, within thirty days from the date of the submission of the request. (art. 1 to 4 Decree No. 984 of 2003).

      In addition, art. 199 LL provides for mandatory consultation with the trade unions on the criteria for selecting the workers to dismiss if these are not included in the collective agreement in force in the enterprise.

    Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Under the LL and the Prime Minister Decree No. 984 of 2003, if contemplating redundancies, the employer must submit a request for closing the enterprise or reducing its size or activity to a committee established for this purpose (art. 196 and 197 LL). The committee in charge of deciding on such request must consist of a representative nominated by the General Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions, a representative of an employers' organisation nominated by the concerned organisation, a technical and economic representative from the General Authority for Investment, and a representative from the National Social Insurance Authority. The chair is the concerned director of the Manpower and Emigration Directorate. The committee must prepare an argued decision, adopted by majority vote, within thirty days from the date of the submission of the request. (art. 1 to 4 Decree No. 984 of 2003).

    Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

    Remarks:
    • - See article 1 Decree No. 984 of 2003: the committee in charge of deciding on the request for closing the enterprise or reducing its size or activity must include a representative nominated by the General Federation of Egyptian Trade Unions.
      - See also art. 198 LL: The employer must inform the workers and trade unions concerned about the request to the committee and the decision received.

    Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Within 30 days from the date of the submission of the request, the committee must issue a substantiated decision, adopted by majority of vote and approved by the concerned governor. In case of authorization of dismissals, the committee must indicate the date they become effective (art. 197 LL and art. 3 Decree No. 984 of 2003).

      Note that the LL and 2003 Decree establish an appeal mechanism against the committee's decision before the Central Committee for complaints established in the Ministry of Manpower and Emigration.
      (art. 198 LL and 4 and 5 of the Decree No. 984 of 2003)

    Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

    Remarks:
    • However, a worker's representative sits on the tripartite Committee in charge of approving the employer's request.
      The decision must be taken by majority voting and the participation of 3 members out of 4 is sufficient for the vote to be valid. (see above, and see art. 197 LL and art. 3 Decree No. 984 of 2003).

    Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

    Remarks:
    • If the collective agreement in force in the enterprise does not provide any objective criteria for selecting the workers to dismiss, the employer must consult with trade union representatives. Seniority, family responsibilities, age, vocational abilities, and skills shall be within the criteria that may be drawn upon in this respect. In all cases, the criteria for selection must take into account the interests of both the enterprise and workers (Art. 199 LL)

    Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...) : Non

    Remarks:
    • No statutory obligation. However, this might be considered by the Committee when deciding on the employer's request.
      In addition, pursuant to art. 201 LL, as an alternative to dismissing workers for economic reasons, the employer is entitled to propose modifications to the employment contract. If the worker refuses it, he/she has the right to leave the enterprise without giving any notice. In this case, the dismissal is deemed lawful and the worker keeps his/her rights to compensation prescribed for dismissals for economic reasons.

    Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

    Notes / Remarques
    In the absence of any specified threshold for the application of those procedural requirements, it may be possible that they also apply to the termination of employment of one redundant worker.

    Indemnités de licenciement et indemnités spécifques aux licenciements économiques - 2017    

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    Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:
    Remarks:
    • Art. 201 LL: in the event of termination for economic reasons, the worker is entitled to one month's wage for each of the first five years of service, and one-and-a-half months for each subsequent year.
    • ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 4 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 12.5 mois
    • ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 27.5 mois

    Notes / Remarques
    1) Non-economic dismissal: no severance pay
    2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment

    Voies de recours et procédure contentieuse en cas de litiges individuels - 2017    

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    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

    Remarks:
    • See art. 122 LC.

    Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie) :
    Not less than two months' wage for each year of service.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 122 LL.

    Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

    Remarks:
    • Reinstatement is only available in the following cases:
      - If the Labour Court rejects the employer's request to dismiss an employee on disciplinary grounds (listed in art. 69 LL), it will order the employer to reinstate the worker and pay him back wages. However, if the employer does not follow the court's decision, the dismissal is deemed as an unjustified dismissal and the worker is allowed financial compensation as provided in art. 122 LL (art. 71 LL, as amended in 2008).
      - If the court considers that the employer requests the dismissal of a worker because of his or her trade union activities, it will order the employer to reinstate the worker if so requested by the worker (art. 71 LL, as amended in 2008).

      In any other cases, unjustified termination by employer will only give right to compensation (art. 122 LL).

    Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

    Remarks:
    • If an individual dispute on the application of the LL arises, it shall first be brought to tripartite body (consisting in representatives of the competent administrative administration, of the employer and of the trade union) for amicable settlement.

    Courts ou tribunaux compétents : tribunal du travail

    Remarks:
    • See art. 70 and 71 LL as amended in 2008. Since 2008, the Committee in charge of settling individual labour disputes has been replaced by the Labour Court.

    Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

    Remarks:
    • No provision found in the legislation reviewed.

    Information supplémentaire - 2017    

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    Liens

    ILO termination of employment legislation digest - Egypt (last updated in 2006) »