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Venezuela, República Bolivariana de
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2019    

Referencias
Remarks:
  • A new "Organic Labour Law" was adopted by Presidential Decree on 30 April, 2012 and published in the official journal on 6 may 2012. This law abrogates and replaces the former OLL of 1990, amended in 1997.

  • Organic Labour Law [OLL] of April 2012 (Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, los Trabajadores y las Trabajadoras - available in Spanish)
    Fecha: 30 Apr 2012; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Organic Labour Law Regulation on working time [OLLR], 30 April 2013 (Reglamento Parcial de la Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, los Trabajadores y las Trabajadoras sobre el tiempo de trabajo - available in Spanish)
    Fecha: 30 Apr 2013; ver la pagina web »
  • Organic Labour Procedure Law [OLPL], 13 August 2002 (Ley Orgánica Procesal del Trabajo - available in Spanish),
    Fecha: 13 Aug 2002 (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Presidential Decree No. 2.158 of 28 December 2015 (Decree providing certain workers with immunity from dismissals for the year 2015) and
    Presidential Decree No. 3.708 of 28 December 2018 (Decree providing certain workers with immunity from dismissals for the year 2018 - until 2020
    Fecha: 28 Dec 2018
  • Law on Equal Opportunities for Women (Ley de igualdad de oportunidades para la mujer).
    Fecha: 13 Aug 1993 (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Remarks:
  • No exclusion based on the size of the enterprise,
    [Under the previous OLL, enterprises with fewer than 10 workers were exempt from the obligation reinstate a worker following a court decision ruling that the dismissal is unjustified. Such exemption was not repeated in the new OLL]

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos; trabajadores domésticos; policía; ejercito; cuerpos de seguridad
Remarks:
  • Members of the armed forces and state security corps are excluded from the scope of this legislation. The protection of the staff working in those services will be established by regulatory provisions, and cannot be inferior to those provided by the OLL. (art. 5 OLL)
    Public servants and public employees at the national, state or municipal levels are not covered by the provisions of the OLL in so far as they are governed by the administrative career regulations. Nevertheless, in any matter not regulated they may enjoy benefits through labour legislation applicable to workers in the private sector. (Art. 6 OLL)

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2019    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 1 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • The OLL does not establish a probationary period for workers, however, it establishes a period of 30 days in which the worker is not protected by the right to a stable job place and, therefore, can be dismissed without just cause (Art. 87 OLL). Academics considers this to be a non-explicit probationary period.

    Note that article 80 OLL foresees a trial period of 90 days for workers that are being promoted. In case of failure, the worker will be reinstalled in its previous

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
    Remarks:
    • A contract is deemed to be of indeterminate duration if the parties do not explicitly state the desire to be bound by an employment relationship solely for a specified task or for a specified period. A contract is presumed to be for an undetermined period of time, therefore, FTC are considered exceptional and its regulatory provisions must be restrictively interpreted (art. 61 et seq., OLL).

      Art. 64 OLL provides that FTCs can only be concluded a) if so required by the nature of the service; b) for a temporary and lawful replacement of a worker; c) contracts concluded with Venezuelan nationals for the performance of services abroad d) when the task for which the employee was contracted has not been completed.
      If an FTC is done under other circumstances, it will be considered null.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. 62OLL: In the event of two renewals, the contract is considered to be of indeterminate duration, except if there are special reasons that justify such extension and exclude any intention to continue the relationship.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 1 año(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 62: In a FTC, workers cannot be bounded for more than one year.
      However, if the contract is concluded for a specified task, it will last for the time required for execution of the work and will end with the conclusion of the work. (Art. 63)

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2019    

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Obligación de motivar el despido : No

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : conducta del trabajador
Remarks:
  • • The OLL establishes a distinction between justified dismissal (despido justificado) and unjustified dismissal (despido injustificado) (art. 77OLL).

    According to art. 86 and 87 OLL, any permanent worker who is not a manager and has more than 1 month of service has the right to employment stability: that means that they cannot be dismissed without a just cause. Those who are not covered by employment stability can be dismissed without a cause.

    In particular, pursuant to art. 79 OLL, in order to be considered justified, a dismissal shall be based on the following grounds (conduct-based):
    - dishonesty or immoral behaviour;
    - acts of violence except in legitimate self-defence;
    - insult or serious lack of respect towards the employer, his or her representatives or family members living in his or her home;
    - deliberate action or gross negligent acts affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - forgetfulness or carelessness seriously affecting safety or health in the workplace;
    - unjustified absence from work for three working days within the period of one month, starting to count on the day of the first absence. If the absence is due to the worker’s sickness/disease it will be considered justified. The worker must always notify the employer of the reason of his/her absence;
    - material damage to the plant, tools, furniture belonging to the enterprise, raw materials, finished or partly processed products, plantations or other relevant property, whether deliberate or resulting from serious negligence;
    - disclosure of secrets of production, construction or process;
    - serious breach of the obligations under the contract of employment; or
    - abandonment of work (see art. 79 for an extended definition).
    - work harassment or sexual harassment.

    As a rule, the OLL only allows dismissal based one of the above listed cause in respect of workers covered by the employment stability (= those with at least 1 month service, hired under a permanent contract and who are not managerial employees).
    However, under the same law, it is still possible for an employer who persists in dismissing an employee who benefit form such stability, even without having a just cause (unjustified dismissal) to carry out the dismissal provided that he/she pays a compensation for unjustified dismissal and the dismissed worker abandons its right to reinstatement. Such compensation can be paid in the course of the legal proceedings or even at the time of the dismissal. In such cases, the proceedings before the judge will not take place. (art. 92 and 93 OLL). Article 425 OLL provides for the procedure to force the employer to reinstate a worker if he or she so desires.

    Economic reasons are not considered to be just cause for termination.
    _______________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 86. "Todo trabajador o trabajadora tiene derecho a la garantía de permanencia en su trabajo, si no hay causas que justifiquen la terminación de la relación laboral. Cuando un trabajador o trabajadora haya sido despedido sin que haya incurrido en causas que lo justifiquen, podrá solidtar la reincorporación a su puesto de trabajo de conformidad a lo previsto en esta Ley."

    Artículo 87. "Estarán amparados y amparadas por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley:
    1. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras a tiempo indeterminado a partir del primer mes de prestación de servicio.
    2. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas por tiempo determinado, mientras no haya vencido el término del contrato.
    3. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras contratados y contratadas para una obra determinada, hasta que haya concluido la totalidad de las tareas a ejecutarse por el trabajador o trabajadora, para las cuales fueron expresamente contratados y contratadas.
    Los trabajadores y las trabajadoras de dirección, no estarán amparados por la estabilidad prevista en esta Ley."

    Articulo 79. "Seran causas justificadas de despido, los sigUientes hechos del trabajador o trabajadora:
    a) Falta de probidad o conducta inmoral en el trabajo.
    b) Vías de hecho, salvo en legítima defensa.
    e) Injuria o falta grave al respeto y consideración debidos al patrono o a la patrona, a sus representantes o a los miembros de su familia que vivan con él o ella.
    d) Hecho intendonal o negligencia grave que afecte a la salud y la seguridad laboral.(...)"


Motivos prohibidos : estado civil; embarazo ; raza; sexo; orientación sexual ; religión ; opinion política ; origen social ; nacionalidad ; edad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; discapacidad
Remarks:
  • Art. 18 (7) and Art. 21 OLL : Non-discrimination in employment.
    Art. 420 OLL: A pregnant woman worker shall be immune from dismissal during pregnancy and for two year after confinement, provided that no serious fault is committed, in which case the prior authorization of the Labour Inspectorate shall be required (Art. 421 OLL). This protection also applies to a woman worker who has adopted a child.

    See also: Equal Opportunities for Women Act of 15 August 1993 [Ley de Igualdad de Oportunidades para la Mujer], Art. 15: It is unlawful to dismiss or pressure a woman, or diminish her rights, during or as a result of pregnancy. If a woman believes her rights have been violated she may bring a constitutional action in order that they be restored to her.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad ; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares ; trabajadores con una invalidez confirmada; trabajadores que desempeñan servicio militar/servicio alternativo ; trabajadores con licencia temporal por enfermedad
Remarks:
  • Venezuelan law provides that certain workers, for various reasons, are irremovable and may not be dismissed, transferred or employed in less favourable working conditions without just cause approved in advance by the labour inspector (art. 94, OLL).
    This protection is, generally, reserved for trade union promoters and board members, promoters of collective agreements and workers involved in collective disputes against employers, but has also been extended to other categories of persons, whether or not they are linked to trade union activity or collective relations. The following may therefore enjoy protection under the BLA:
    * a pregnant woman, during pregnancy and up to two year after confinement; paternity protection during the pregnancy of his couple up to two years after confinement
    * workers with one or more disabled children or serious disease hampering its self-fulfilment
    * workers enjoying trade union rights, including:
    ->workers applying to register a trade union, since the moment of the application up until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -workers supporting the register of a trade union u until fifteen days after it has been registered or the application has been denied;
    -representatives of the board of directors of the trade union in an enterprise (the number of protected individuals depends on the size of the enterprise.
    -workers enjoying membership in a trade union which is holding elections, until the establishment of the board of directors.
    -workers who run for trade union elections, up until 60 days after the board has been established.
    -workers during the drafting and negotiating process of a collective agreement since its presentation to Labour Inspection up until the end of its negotiation or start of an arbitration procedure.
    -workers during the exercise of its right to strike, as foreseen in the law.

    __________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 94 OLL. Los trabajadores y trabajadoras protegidos de inamovilidad no podrán ser despedidos, ni trasladados, ni desmejorados sin una causa justificada la cual deberá ser previamente calificada por el inspector o inspectora del trabajo.


Notas / Comentarios
NOTE IMPORTANT: For some categories of workers: the application of these rules concerning individual dismissals were suspended by the 2015 and 2018 Decrees providing certain categories of workers with immunity against dismissals. Under those Decrees, prior accreditation of just cause by the labour inspectorate is required for any dismissal of any worker falling within the scope of application of the decrees.

Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2019    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : sin forma particular exigida

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • No notice period is necessary in cases of dismissal for just cause. (art. 82 OLL)
    ____________
    In Spanish:
    Artículo 82. "Cualquiera de las partes podrá dar por terminada la reladón de trabajo, sin previo aviso, cuando exista causa justificada para llo. Esta causa no podrá invocarse si hubieren transcurrido treinta días continuos desde aquel en que el patrono, la oatrona o el trabajador o la trabajadora haya tenido o debido tener conocimiento del hecho que constituya causa justificada, para terminar la relación por voluntad unilateral."

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso : No

    Remarks:
    • There is no pay in lieu of notice because there is no notice foreseen in OLL.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Remarks:
    • • Under the OLL, there is no general obligation to notify the labour administration prior to any dismissal.
      However, any dismissal of a worker protected by job stability must be notified to the competent labour judge within five business days of the date of the dismissal, with an indication of the reasons. . (= post-dismissal notification to a judicial body)
      In the absence of such notification, the dismissal will be deemed unjustified (art. 89 OLL).
      The employer is not bound to observe such requirement when dismissing managers and permanent employees with less than 1 month's service.

      Notification to and authorization from the Labour Inspector is required for workers enjoying special protection (see art. 449 OLL on the general special protection against dismissal for trade union related activities (fuero sindical), on the categories of workers entitled to such protection see: art. 419 OLL ; on special protection not related to trade union activities see art. 420 OLL; on special protection for pregnant women, women on maternity leave and paternity leave, see: art. 335 and 339, on special protection during the authorized period of suspension of the employment relationship, art 420 together with art 72 OLL.

      HOWEVER, the above mentioned protection has been extended to a large number of workers by the so-called "Immunity Decrees" (Decree No. 3.708 for the year 2018). These are: all workers covered by the Labour Code except managers, workers with less than three months' seniority, employees in positions of trust, and workers who earn more than three times the minimum wage. Under the immunity decree, a worker can only be dismissed for a just cause previously approved by the Labour Inspector.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • Art. 89 OLL: When the employer dismisses one or more workers protected by employment stability), he/she will have to notify it to the pertinent judge stating the causes that justify the dismissal in the following five working days, otherwise it will be considered a dismissal without just cause by the employer itself.
      Art. 90 OLL: The judge will have to orally decide on the dismissal, and state if there is right to reinstatement and if the worker must be paid a compensation.
      ______________________
      In Spanish:
      Artículo 89 OLL. "Cuando el patrono o patrona despida a uno o más trabajadores o trabajadoras amparados o amparadas por estabilidad laboral deberá participarlo al Juez o la Jueza de Sustanciación, Mediación y Ejecución de su jurisdicción, indicando las causas que justifiquen el despido, dentro de los cinco días hábiles siguientes, de no hacerlo se le tendrá por confeso, en el reconocimiento que el despido lo hizo sin justa causa. (...)"
      Artículo 90. "El Juez o Jueza de Juicio deberá decidir de manera oral sobre el fondo de la causa y declarar con o sin lugar la solicitud de reenganche y el pago de los salarios caídos."

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2019    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    1) Mass dismissal is defined as any dismissal concerning
    - at least 10% of the workers or more in undertakings with more than 100 workers;
    -20% of the workers in undertakings of more than 50 workers;
    - at least 10 workers in undertakings with fewer than 50 workers;
    within 3 months or more if the circumstances make the dismissal critical.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 OLL defines the notion of "mass dimissals" and establishes the related procedure. This procedure established by Article 95 OLL can be suspended by the Ministry of Popular Power, through special resolutions,on the grounds of social interest.
      However, the above-mentioned rules do not apply to workers covered by the "Immunity Decree "(Decree No. 3.708 of 2018), namely: all workers covered by the Labour Code except managers and workers with less than one month seniority. Under the Immunity Decree, a worker can only be dismissed for a just cause previously approved by the Labour Inspector.
      ____________________
      In Spanish:
      Despido masivo - Artículo 95 OLL.
      "El despido se considerará masivo cuando afecte a un número igual o mayor al diez por ciento de los trabajadores o trabajadoras de una entidad de trabajo que tenga más de cien trabajadores o trabajadoras, o al veinte por ciento de una entidad de trabajo que tenga más de cincuenta trabajadores o trabajadoras, o a diez trabajadores o trabajadoras de una entidad de trabajo que tenga menos de cincuenta dentro de un lapso de tres meses, o aún mayor si las circunstancias le dieren carácter crítico.
      Cuando se realice un despido masivo, el Ministerio del Poder popular con competenda en trabajo y seguridad social podrá, por razones de interés social, suspenderlo mediante resolución especial."

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) : No

    Remarks:
    • No involvement of workers' representative in the procedure for mass dismissals foreseen in the OLL. However, if after the Ministry of Labour has ordered the suspension of the effects of the mass dismissal and reinstatement of the workers, the employer still wants to carry out dismissals on economic grounds, he/she can submit an application for workforce reduction to the Labour Inspector.

      NOTE: The above-mentioned rules do not apply to workers covered by the "Immunity Decree "(Decree No. 3.708 of 2018). These are: all workers covered by the Labour Code except managers and workers with less than one month seniority. Under the immunity decree, a worker can only be dismissed for a just cause previously approved by the Labour Inspector

    Notificación a la administración:

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Remarks:
    • No involvement of workers' representative in the procedure for mass dismissals foreseen in the OLL.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 OLL: The Ministry of Popular Power, with competences in labour and social security, can suspend the mass dismissals related procedures if it considers social interest reasons and states so by special resolutions.
      • Moreover, the "Immunity Decree "(Decree No. 3.708 for the year 2018) - which covers all workers under the scope of the Labour Code except managers and workers with less than one month seniority- states that a worker can only be dismissed for a just cause previously approved by the Labour Inspector. Currently this is the procedure that regulates most of the dismissals in practice.

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Remarks:
    • Neither the OLL nor the Immunity Decree foresee the approval by workers’ representatives.

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Remarks:
    • No statutory provision in the OLL concerning criteria to be taken into consideration in the event of redundancy.
      However, it is important to keep in mind here the immunity from dismissal granted to some categories of workers (under the OLL (see above special protection) and under the Immunity Decree)

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

    Remarks:
    • No reference to alternative measures to dismissals in the provisions governing mass dismissals.

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Remarks:
    • No statutory provision.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2019    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • Art. 92 OLL: In case of termination of the working relationship for reasons not connected with the will of the employee, or in case of unjust dismissal, when the employee expresses its will to not be reinstated, the employer will have to pay a compensation amounting to social benefits

      Article 142 OLL: Social benefits will be protected, calculated and payed as follows:
      a) The employer will guarantee the social benefits by depositing the equivalent to fifteen days each trimester, calculated on the basis of the las accrued income. The employee has the right over this bond since the start of the trimester.
      b) Additionally, and after the first year of service, the employer will deposit two days of salary to each worker each year, cumulative up until 30 days of salary.
      c) In case of termination of the working relationship, whatever the cause is, benefits will be calculated on the basis of 30 days per year of work or fraction over six months calculated by reference to the last salary.
      d) The worker will receive the benefits that are more favourable between the bond established in subsections a and b, and the end of employment benefits in accordance with subsection c.
      e) If a working relationship finishes in the three first months, the worker will receive 5 days of salary per months of work or fraction.
      f) The payment of social benefits must be done in the five days following the end of the working relationship, otherwise the payment will generate default delay interests in accordance with the active tax determined by the Central Bank of Venezuela, taking as a reference the six first banks of the State.
      __________________
      In Spanish:
      Artículo 92. "En caso de terminación de la relación de trabajo por causas ajenas a la voluntad del trabajador o trabajadora, o en los casos de despido sin razones que lo justifiquen cuando el trabajador o la trabajadora manifestaran su voluntad de no interponer el procedimiento para solicitar el reenganche, el patrono o patrona deber;; pagarle una indemnización equivalente al monto que le corresponde por las prestaciones sociales."

      Artículo 142. Las prestaciones sodales se protegerán, calcularán y pagarán de la siguiente manera:
      a) El patrono o patrona depositará a cada trabajador o trabajadora por concepto de garantía de las prestaciones sociales el equivalente a quince días cada trimestre, calculado con base al último salario devengado. El derecho a este depósito se adquiere desde el momento de iniciar el trimestre.
      b) Adicionalmente y después del primer año de servicio, el patrono o patrona depositara a cada trabajador o trabajadora dos días de salario, ¡;¡or cada año, acumulativos hasta treinta días de salario.
      e) Cuando la relación de trabajo termine por cualquier causa se calcularán las prestaciones sociales con base a treinta días por cada año de servicio o fracción superior a los seis meses calculada al último salario.
      d) El trabajador o trabajadora recibirá por concepto de prestaciones sociales el monto que resulte mayor entre el total de la garantía depositada de acuerdo a lo establecido en los literales a y b, y el cálculo efectuado al final de la relación laboral de acuerdo al literal c.
      e) Si la relació'1 de trabajo termina antes de los tres primeros meses, el pago que le corresponde al trabajador o trabajadora por concepto de prestaciones sociales será de cinco días de salario por mes trabajado o fracción.
      f) El pago de las prestaciones sociales se hará dentro de loscinco días siguientes a la terminación de la relación laboral, y de no cumplirse el pago generará intereses de mora a la tasa activa determinada por el Banco Central de Venezuela, tomando como referencia los seis principales bancos del país.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 30 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 30 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 30 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 60 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 120 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 150 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 300 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 600 día(s)

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2019    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :
    Article 142 (c) OLL provides that “in case of termination of the working relationship, whatever the cause is, benefits will be calculated on the basis of 30 days per year of work or fraction over six months calculated by reference to the last salary”. However the application of this provision raises some difficulties in practice. Article 6 of the Immunity Decree No. 3.708 establishes that in case of unjustified dismissal the worker will be able to opt for reinstatement. Article 9 provides that the employers who does will be sanctioned on the basis of Article 531 (violation of worker’s immobility), Article 532 (disregard of a public worker’s order) or Article 538 (causes of arrest - including disregarding the obligation of reinstatement) OLL.

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • Reinstatement remains always an option in cases of dismissal. See e.g. Article 90 OLL, which provides that “The judge will have to orally decide on the substance and declare if there should or not be reinstatement and payment of back wages”.
      See also the Organic Labour Procedure Law (OLPL), Art. 187. Moreover, under Article 191 OLPL, employers with less than 10 employees are not obliged to reinstatement.
      HOWEVER, the above mentioned rules do not apply to workers covered by the Immunity Decree 3.708, namely: all workers covered by the Labour Code except managers and seasonal workers. Under the immunlity decree, prior to any dismissal, the employer must request authorization from the Labour Inspector who will only grant it if there is a just cause. If the employer fails to do so or the dismissal is consider unjustified, the Labour Inspect will order reinstatement.
      ____________
      In Spanish:
      Decisión del procedimiento - Artículo 90 OLL:
      "El Juez o Jueza de Juicio deberá decidir de manera oral sobre el fondo de la causa y declarar con o sin lugar la solicitud de reenganche y el pago de los salarios caídos."
      Artículo 187 OLPL: "Cuando el patrono despida a uno o mas trabajadores deberá participarlo al Juez de Sustanciación, Mediación y Ejecución de su jurisdicción, indicando las causas que justifiquen el despido, dentro de los cinco (5) días hábiles siguientes; de no hacerla se le tendrá por confeso, en el reconocimiento que el despido lo hizo sin justa causa. (...)"
      Artículo 191 OLPL:"Los patronos que ocupen menos de diez (10) trabajadores, no estarán obligados al reenganche del trabajador despedido, pero sí al pago de las prestaciones e indemnizaciones a que refiere la Ley Orgánica del Trabajo, cuando el despido obedezca a una justa causa que en todo caso será objeto de calificación por el Tribunal competente."

    Conciliación previa obligatoria:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 422 OLL determines as a part of the procedure in case of dismissal of a worker protected by employment stability - i.e. most of them - a conciliation phase.
      Art. 133 of OLPL: preliminary mandatory conciliation before the Judge.
      ______________
      In Spanish:
      Artículo 422 OLL: "Cuando un patrono o patrona pretenda despedir por causa justificada a un trabajador o trabajadora investido o investida de fuero sindical o inamovilidad laboral, trasladarlo o trasladarla de su puesto de trabajo o modificar sus condiciones laborales, deberá solicitar la autorización correspondiente al Inspector o Inspectora del Trabajo, dentro de los treinta días siguientes a la fecha en que el trabajador o trabajadora cometió la falta alegada para justificar el despido, o alegada como causa del traslado o de la modificación de condiciones de trabajo, mediante el siguiente procedimiento: (...)"
      Art. Artículo 133 OLPL: "En la audiencia preliminar el Juez de Sustanciación, Mediación y Ejecución deberá, personalmente, mediar y conciliar las posiciones de las partes, tratando con la mayor diligencia que éstas pongan fin a la controversia, e través de los medios de auto composición procesal. Si esta mediación es positiva, el Juez dará por concluido el proceso, mediante sentencia en forma oral, que dictará de inmediato, homologando el acuerdo de las partes, la cual reducirá en acta y tendrá efecto de cosa juzgada."

    Corte o Tribunal competente : tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • Art. 13 OLPL: labour jurisdiction is exercised by Labour Courts, in conformity with this law.
      _____________
      In Spanish:
      Artículo 13 OLPL: "La jurisdicción laboral se ejerce por los Tribunales del Trabajo, de conformidad con las disposiciones de esta Ley."

    Arbitraje:

    Remarks:
    • The OLPL provides for the possibility to refer the dispute to arbitration in the course of the legal proceedings before the judge.
      Art. 133 OLPL and 135-149 OLPL.

      NOT APPLICABLE to workers covered by the Immunity Decree.

    Información adicional - 2019    

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    Enlances

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 »

    Background paper for the Tripartite Meeting of Experts to Examine the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158), and the Termination of Employment Recommendation, 1982 (No. 166), April 2011 »
    See the country study on employment termination legislation in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela: pp. 56-60.