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Panamá
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2010    

Referencias
  • Labour Code [LC], 30 december 1971 as last amended by Act No. 44 of August 1995 (Código del Trabajo) - available in Spanish
    Fecha: 12 Aug 1995; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Categorías de trabajadores excluidas: funcionarios publicos; miembros de cooperativas

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2010    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 3 mes(es)

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 12 mes(es)
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 77 %

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2010    

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Obligación de motivar el despido:

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): razones económicas; conducta del trabajador; capacidad del trabajador

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; raza; sexo; religión; opinion política; origen social; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales; discapacidad; participación en una huelga legal; nacimiento

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2010    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Plazo de preaviso:

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: No

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Notas / Comentarios
    As a general rule, the employer is not required to observe statutory notice period under the Panamanian labour legislation.
    Depending on the reasons for dismissal, before proceeding to dismissal, the employer has either the obligation to obtain authorization from the labour administration (in case of an economic dismissal) or the option of applying to the labour courts for prior authorization to dismiss when dismissal is based on any other authorized ground.

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2010    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    No definition of collective dismissal.
    However, there is a definition of "economic reasons" for dismissal. The law provides for a specific regime applicable to any dismissal (individual or collective) based on economic reasons.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

    Notificación a la administración:

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales:

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio):

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2010    

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    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas: Redundancy payment shall amount to compensation for unfair dismissal.
    In the case of employment commencing after April 1972, redundancy payment should be equivalent to3.4 weeks of wages for each year worked in the ten first years; and each year after ten years should be paid with the equivalent of one week's wages for each year. Where a full year has not been completed, the corresponding proportion is due.
    For contracts concluded before April 1972, see compensation for unfair dismissal under "avenues for redress".

    Notas / Comentarios
    1) Dismissal with cause (not economic): no severance pay.
    2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment = compensation for unfair dismissal.
    3) Dismissal of workers not subject to the just cause requirement (workers with less than two years of uninterrupted service; domestic employees; permanent employees of small agricultural, fishing or manufacturing undertakings; seafarers serving on board vessels operating on international routes; apprentices; workers in retail sales establishments and in undertakings with five or fewer workers, except in the case of insurance establishments or real estate): compensation for unfair dismissal

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2010    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo):
    In case of unfair dismissal or failure of notification if mandatory, the worker is entitled to receive from his or her employer compensation based on the following scale (sec. 225, LC) For periods of service prior to 2 April 1972:
    * for less than one year's service, the equivalent of one week's wages for every three months of employment, and with a minimum amount of such compensation equivalent to one week's wages;
    * for a period of service of between one and two years, the equivalent of one week's wages for every two months of employment;
    * for more than two and not more than five years' service, three months' wages;
    * for more than five and not more than ten years' service, four months' wages;
    * for more than ten and not more than 15 years' service, five months' wages;
    * for more than 15 and not more than 20 years' service, six months' wages; and
    * for more than 20 years' service, seven months' wages.
    This scale may not be applied on a graduated basis, i.e. the highest applicable level determines the amount to be paid.
    For periods of service after 2 April 1972, the following scale is to be applied:
    * for less than one year's service, the equivalent of one week's wages for every three months of employment (the minimum amount of such compensation to be the equivalent of one week's wages);
    * for a period of service between one and two years, the equivalent of one week's wages for each two months of employment;
    * for a period of service between two and ten years, the equivalent of wages for three additional weeks for each year of service; and
    * for more than ten additional years of service, the equivalent of one additional week for each year of service.
    This scale is applied on a graduated basis, the total length of service completed being distributed among the corresponding steps set out in the previous sub-items. In the case of service rendered in periods before and after 2 April 1972, the above-mentioned scales are to be applied separately.
    In the case of employment commencing after the LC entered into force, compensation should be equivalent to three to four weeks of wages for each year worked in the ten first years; and each year after ten years should be compensated with the equivalent of one week's wages for each year. Such compensation should not be combined with any other scale. For the two instances cited in this sub-item, where a full year has not been completed, the corresponding proportion is due.

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

    Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

    Arbitraje:

    Información adicional - 2010    

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    Enlances

    Profile of National Legislation covering Termination of Employment (no longer updated) »