La OIT es una agencia especializada de las Naciones Unidas
ILO-es-strap
Volver a la página de entrada
Site map | Contact us English | français
> GOBERNANZA - página de entrada > EPLex: una base de datos sobre la legislación de protección del empleo >

Antigua y Barbuda
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2018    

Referencias
  • The Antigua and Barbuda Labour Code [LC], Act No. 14 of 1975 (Cap. 27)
    Fecha: 19 Sep 1975; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Antigua and Barbuda Labour Code (Amendment) Act [LCA], 1998
    Act No. 16 of 1998
    Fecha: 19 Nov 1998; ver la pagina web »
  • Industrial Court Act [ICA], No. 4 of 1976 (Cap. 214)
    Fecha: 19 Jun 1976; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Categorías de trabajadores excluidas: funcionarios publicos; policía; ejército; diplomáticos; empleados de la ONU
Remarks:
  • See sec. A5 LC "Interpretation": the term employee does not include established employees of the Government.
    Sec. A6 Employers and employees affected:
    Employers and employees affected.
    A6. (2) To the extent that provisions of this Code apply to employees, they shall apply to all employees of employers operating or doing business in Antigua and Barbuda, including the non-established employees of the Government; but they shall not apply to-
    (a) established employees of the Government;
    (b) persons in the naval, military, or air forces of the Government;
    (c) the Police Force;
    (d) persons holding the status of diplomatic agents; or
    (e) persons employed by the United Nations or its specialised agencies.

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2018    

+ show references

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 3 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Sec. C8 LC: The probation period may not exceed 3 months, unless there is provision for a greater period in a collective agreement.
    During his probation period, an employee's employment may be terminated without any reason.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • CDD regulados: No
    Remarks:
    • Sec C57 LC only provides that "an employee will not be deemed to have been dismissed unfairly if his employment is terminated at the expiration of the term specified at the time of his hire."
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción
    Remarks:
    • No provision on valid reasons for the use of FTC in the legislation reviewed.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • No provision limiting the use of FTC in the legislation reviewed.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • No provision limiting the use of FTC in the legislation reviewed.

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2018    

+ show references

Obligación de motivar el despido:
Remarks:
  • Upon termination by an employer subsequent to the expiration of the probation period, the employer is required to furnish a written statement indicating the precise reason for the termination, upon a request being made by the employee within seven days of termination or notice thereof (sec. C10 LC as amended by sec. 8 LCA).


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa
Remarks:
  • Sec. C56 LC: After the expiry of the probationary period, every employee has the right not to be unfairly dismissed and no employer shall dismiss any such employee without just cause.

    According to sec. C58 LC a dismissal is not unfair if the reason behind it:
    - relates to misconduct of the employee,
    - relates to the capability or qualifications of the employee to perform work
    - is that the employee was redundant;
    - is that the employee could not continue to work in the position he held without contravention (on his or on the employer's part) of a requirement of law; or
    - is some other substantial reason of a kind which would entitle a reasonable employer to dismiss an employee holding the position which the employee held (inserted by sec. 18 LCA)
    There needs to be a factual basis for the assigned reason.
    The test for deciding whether or not a dismissal was unfair is whether or not, under the circumstances the employer acted unreasonably or reasonably.


Motivos prohibidos: raza; color; sexo; religión; opinion política; edad; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales
Remarks:
  • The LC does not expressly provide a list of prohibited grounds for dismissal.
    However, sec. C4(1) LC prohibits discrimination with respect to hire, tenure, wages, hours, or any other condition of work on the grounds of race, colour, creed, sex, age or political beliefs.
    On trade union membership or activities, see sec. K(3) and K(4) LC.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero):
Remarks:
  • No provision found in the legislation reviewed.


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2018    

+ show references

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: sin forma particular exigida

Remarks:
  • The LC does not specify whether the employer's notice of termination shall be written or not (see. sec. C9 LC).
    The employer is however required to furnish a written statement indicating the precise reason for the termination, upon a request by the employee within seven days of termination or notice thereof (sec. C10 LC as amended by sec. 8 LCA).

Plazo de preaviso:
Remarks:
  • See sec. C9(3) LC.
    - The period of said advance notice shall be at least equivalent to the interval of time between the affected employee's paydays. It shall not exceed 30 days unless a longer notice period is stipulated in an employment contract.
    - With respect to an employee serving a probation period, an employer must give at least 24 hours advance notice of his intention to terminate that person's employment.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso:

    Remarks:
    • See sec. C9(4) LC.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2018    

    + show references

    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    No number specified in the LC.

    Remarks:
    • The LC only provides for a definition of redundancy without specifying the number of employees concerned.
      See sec. C3 LC, as amended by sec. 7 LCA:
      "'redundancy' means a situation in which by virtue of lack of customers orders, retrenchment, the installation of labour saving machinery, an employer's going out of business, a force majeure, or any other reason, work which a person was last employed to perform has ceased or substantially diminished".

      Note that there are no additional requirements (such as notification or consultation) applicable to redundancy.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Notas / Comentarios
    The LC does not foresee any specific legal regime applicable to collective dismissal.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2018    

    + show references

    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • No severance pay upon dismissal for reasons other than redundancy (sec. C40 LC)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • See sec. C40 and 41 LC: provided that an employee has served at least one year with his or her present and predecessor employers, he or she will be entitled redundancy pay at a rate of at least one day's pay, at the employee's latest basic wage, for each month or major fraction thereof of his term of employment with his employer and any predecessor employer.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 12 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 24 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 48 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 60 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 120 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 240 día(s)

    Notas / Comentarios
    Dismissal other than by reason of redundancy: no severance pay
    Dismissal by reason of redundancy: redundancy pay

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2018    

    + show references

    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte:

    Remarks:
    • See sec. B12 LC, as amended by sec. 6 of LCA: In an unfair dismissal or suspension without pay matter, a decisional officer may order the payment of a sum of money equal to loss of wages sustained and, in addition thereto he may also order the re-instatement or restoration of the person dismissed or suspended, or the payment of a sum of money in lieu of such reinstatement"

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • See sec. B12 LC as amended by sec. 6 LCA.

    Conciliación previa obligatoria:

    Remarks:
    • Complaints of unfair dismissals shall be first brought to the Labour Commissioner who shall seek to settle the matter by voluntary adjustment or settlement within 10 days. Conciliation or mediation may be used for those purposes (see sec. C60, C61 together with sec. B5 LC).
      Failing to achieve voluntary adjustment or settlement, he shall transmit the matter to the Minister in charge of Labour who shall also himself attempt to achieve voluntary adjustment or settlement of the matter by taking whatever steps he deems appropriate.(sec. C62 together with sec. B6 LC) If these attempts do not yield any results, the Minister shall take a number of steps available to him (sec. B6(2) LC) including referral of the matter to a Hearing officer (sec. C63 LC).

    Corte o Tribunal competente: autoridad administrativa

    Remarks:
    • The Hearing Officer is competent to hear complaints of unfair dismissal (upon referral by the Minister) and impose appropriate remedies (damages or reinstatement in addition to the payment of loss wages) (see. sec. B12, and C63 LC).

      It should be noted that the Industrial Relations Court has jurisdiction over trade disputes (collective disputes) and does not generally have jurisdiction over individual disputes such as disputes concerning dismissal.
      However, according to sec. 10 ICA provides that in addition to its jurisdiction, in any dispute concerning the dismissal of an employee, if in the opinion of the Court, an employee has been dismissed in circumstances that are harsh and oppressive or not in accordance with the principles of good industrial relations practice, it may order the re-employment or re-instatement of the employee and/or the payment of compensation or damages, or the payment of exemplary damages in lieu of such re-employment or re-instatement.

    Arbitraje: No

    Remarks:
    • Dismissals complaints do not fall within the jurisdiction of the Arbitration Tribunal which is only competent to hear and determine any major trade dispute (sec. B8 LC). [A major dispute is a dispute which has led to an interruption of work which is continuing; or if there is no present interruption of work, may lead to an interruption of work: sec. K13 LC)

    % de controversias relativas al despido en relación al número total de controversias: 46 %

    Remarks:
    • Statistics for 2007 (% of termination, suspension, redundancy, lay-off disputes), from the Labour Department of Antigua and Barbuda.

    Información adicional - 2018    

    + show references

    Enlances

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) - Comments on the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 »
    Comments by the CEACR on the application of the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158) in Antigua and Barbuda.