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Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2012    

Referencias
Remarks:
  • Note: The consolidated version of the Labour Code is regularly updated.
  • Labour Code (2007-2008: new codification), as subsequently amended, consolidated version dated 31 December 2012 (Code du travail - in French only)
    Fecha: 31 Dec 2012; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): 10
Remarks:
  • There is no general exclusion based on the size of the enterprise. However, the LC provides for exemptions from some procedural requirement for enterprises employing less than 11 workers in particular with respect to sanctions in the event of non compliance with dismissal (procedural and substantive)requirements. See art. L. 1235-5 LC and art. L. 1235-14 LC (on economic dismissal).
    In addition, employees' representatives ("délégués du personnel") who shall be consulted in the event of collective dismissal must be elected only in companies employing at least 11 workers.

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos ; policía ; ejercito ; magistratura
Remarks:
  • The employment relationship of those categories is governed by public law regulations.

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2012    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 8 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Art. L 1221-19 LC & L. 1221-21 LC: max. 4 months renewable once.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
    Remarks:
    • See art. L 1242-1 LC to L. 1242-4 LC.
      Art L 1242-2 LC: exhaustive list of situations when the use of FTC is authorized.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2
    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1243-13 LC
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 24 mes(es)
    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1242-8 LC.
      General rule: 18 months maximum.
      Depending on the grounds for resorting to a FTC, it can be up to 24 months in 3 specific situations.
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 15.2 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2012.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employees.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2012    

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Obligación de motivar el despido :
Remarks:
  • Motives must be provided by the employer during a prior oral interview: art L1232-3 LC.
    In addition, the reasons behind the dismissals should be exposed in the letter of notification of the dismissal: art. L1232-6 LC


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : cualquiera justa causa
Remarks:
  • Individual dismissal: must be justified by a serious and genuine cause ("cause réelle et sérieuse"): art. L 1232-1 LC
    Dismissal for economic reasons: must be equally justified by a serious and genuine cause : art. L 1233-3 LC.


Motivos prohibidos : estado civil; embarazo ; licencia de maternidad; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; color; sexo; orientación sexual ; religión ; opinion política ; origen social ; nacionalidad ; edad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; discapacidad ; participación en una huelga legal; denuncia de violaciones; identidad de género ; estado de salud ; licencia de adopción ; participación en un jurado popular; información genética; origen étnico
NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Art. L 1132-1 LC: list of prohibited grounds of discrimination. [New in 2012: gender identity was introduced as a new prohibited ground by Law No 2012-954 of 6 August 2012]
    Art. L 1132-2 LC: lawful exercise of the right to strike.
    Art. L1132-3 LC: whistle blowing.
    Art. L1132-3-1 LC: performing jury service [New in 2011: new ground introduced by Law No 2011-939 of August 2011]
    Art. L 1225-4 LC: dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave (whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave). Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy or confinement. The same protection against dismissal applies to a employee in adoption leave (see art. 1225-38 LC)


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad
Remarks:
  • *Workers' representatives:
    - Trade union representatives and other worker's representatives: art. L 2411-1 LC
    - Worker's adviser: art. 1232-14 LC
    * Pregnant women and women on maternity leave: art. L 1225-4 and L 1225-5 LC, employees on adoption leave: art 12225-38 LC
    Dismissal is prohibited during pregnancy, where this has been medically certified, during maternity leave (whether or not the worker uses the right to take the leave) and during the period of paid adoption leave, as well as during four weeks after the end of maternity and adoption leave. Dismissal is nonetheless permitted in case of a serious fault of the worker unrelated to pregnancy, or when the employer is unable to maintain the contract of employment for reasons unconnected with pregnancy, confinement or adoption. However, the dismissal or notice of dismissal may not take place during the periods of maternity and adoption leave.


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2012    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : escrita

Remarks:
  • Letter of notification: art. 1232-6 LC.
    (Mandatory oral interview prior to written notification with possible representation by an adviser: art. L 1232-2 LC.)

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • According to art. L 1234-1 of the LC, the minimum mandatory notice period (excl. in cases of serious misconduct) is the following:
    *1 month for tenure of more than 6 months and less than 2 years.
    *2 months for at least 2 year-tenure.
    *For tenure of less than 6 months, the notice period is to be defined by law, collective agreements or customs of the trade.

    Note: In case of force majeure, no obligation to respect the notice period : art. L 1234-12 LC
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • 2 mes(es) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 1234-5 LC

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2012    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    The labour code defines economic dismissal but not collective dismissals.
    However, the LC contains specific sections on the legal requirements applicable to economic dismissal concerning:
    1) less than 10 employees over a 30-day period;
    2) 10 or more employees over a 30-day period.

    Remarks:
    • See: art. L 1233-3 LC, art. L 1233-8 LC, art. L 1233-21 LC

      NB: Special additional category: dismissals following bankruptcy: art. L 1233-58 LC.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • * Dismissals concerning less than 10 employees over a 30 day period: art. L 1233-8 to L 1233-10.
      * Dismissals concerning 10 or more employees over a 30 day period: art. L 1233-28 to L 1233-33 LC.

      (Criminal penalties for failure to observe those requirements: art. L1238-2 LC)

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • * Less than 10 employees over a 30 day period of time: art. L 1233-19 LC.
      * 10 or more employees over a 30 day period: art. L 1233-46 LC.

      + Criminal penalties for failure to observe the notification requirement: art. L 1238-4 LC.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • * Less than 10 employees over 30 days: art. L 1233-8 to L 1233-10
      *10 or more employees over 30 days: art. L 1233-28 to L 1233-33 LC.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • Intervention of the administration: verifies the regularity of the procedure (with regard to information to the workers' representatives, adoption of social plan) and gives advisory opinion but no power to adopt binding decisions: See L 1233-52 to L 1233-57 LC.

      However approval is requested prior to dismissal of some protected workers (i.e. trade union rep. : art. L 2411-3 LC).

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio):

    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1233-5 LC:
      Criteria to be used:
      1) family responsibilities
      2) length of service
      3) social considerations: difficult re-entry in the labour market (in particular for elderly employees and disabled persons)
      4) skills.

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1233-4 LC (general retraining and redeployment obligation applicable to any collective dismissal)
      In particular:
      *Mandatory "employment safeguard plan" (plan de sauvegarde de l'emploi) for enterprises with more than 50 employees in case of a collective dismissal concerning 10 or more employees over a 30 day period: art. L 1233-61 to L 1233-64 LC.
      For failure to adopt a mandatory social plan, compensation awarded by the judge cannot be less than the last 12 month's wages (art. L1235-11 LC).

      (In addition, depending on the size of the company, the following measures can be mandatory: "reclassification leave" (congé de reclassement), "individual reclassification programme" (convention de reclassement personnalisée), "revitalization of the labour market area" (revitalisation des bassins d'emploi): art. 1233-65 to L 1233-90 LC).

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación:

    Remarks:
    • In case of dismissal of 10 or more employees over a 30 day period: preferential rehiring within a limit of 1 year and if requested by the employee: art. L 1235-45 LC.
      See also art. L 1233-45 LC: non observance of the preferential right to re-employment entails compensation that shall amount to 2 months' wages).

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2012    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1234-9 LC (last amended by Act No 2008-596 of 25 June 2008): right to severance pay after a tenure of at least 1 year without interruption, except in case of serious misconduct.
      The calculation modalities are determined by art. R 1234-2 LC:
      The statutory minimum is 1/5 of monthly wages per year of service.
      For employees with more than 10 years of service, 2/15 of the monthly wages multiplied by the number of years of service beyond 10 years should be added.

      Ex:
      Tenure of 1 year: 1/5 x 1 = 0.2
      Tenure of 20 years: (1/5 x 20) + (2/15 x 10) = 5.33
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0.4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.8 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5.33 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • No specific redundancy payment. Severance pay covers economic (individual and collective) dismissals (Art. L 1234-9 LC).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0.4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.8 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5.33 mes(es)

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2012    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :
    Absence of serious and genuine cause:
    The judge awards compensation which as a minimum shall amount to 6 months' wages.

    Remarks:
    • See art. L 1235-3 LC.

      In addition, when the dismissal is justified by a serious and genuine cause but the employer fails to observe the prescribed procedure for individual dismissals, compensation awarded by the judge cannot exceed one month's wages (art. L 1235-2 LC).

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1235-3 LC :
      The judge can prescribe reinstatement in case of absence of a serious and genuine cause.

    Conciliación previa obligatoria:

    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1411-1 LC: conciliation takes place before the conciliation section of the labour court "Conseil des Prudhommes".

    Corte o Tribunal competente : tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • Art. L 1411-1 LC

    Arbitraje: No

    Duración del procedimiento: 10 mes(es)

    Remarks:
    • This duration is not specific to litigation procedures on individual dismissal but includes all cases brought before the "Conseil des Prud'hommes" for the year 2009.
      It does not include appeal procedures.

      Source: http://emploi.france5.fr/emploi/droit-travail/conflits/66844361-fr.php (last accessed in February 2011)

    % de controversias relativas al despido en relación al número total de controversias : 70 %

    Remarks:
    • Statistics for 2007 - Source: Study of the French Ministry of Justice (2009)
      (See: http://www.cabinet-catry.com/statistiques-des-conseils-des-prud-hommes_ad30.html)

    Información adicional - 2012    

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    Enlances

    Use of International Law by Domestic Courts (ICT-ILO) - Compendium »
    Go to "Dismissal" (second item) / France.

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 (from 1990) »