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Finlandia
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2019    

Referencias
  • Employment Contract Act, No. 55 of 2001 [ECA].
    Note: Amendments up to 204/2017 in force since May 1st. 2017 have been reviewed by the researchers.
    Fecha: 01 May 2017; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Act on Cooperation within Undertakings, No 334 of 2007 [ACU], last amended by Act 208/2017 of 4 July 2017 in force since May 1st. 2017.
    Note: the amendments since 2014 are not included in the English version
    Fecha: 01 May 2017; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • The ACU (that establishes cooperation procedures in particular with regards to economic dismissals) only applies to enterprises employing 20 or more workers. However, the ECA is applicable no matter the size of the enterprise.

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos ; gente de mar
Remarks:
  • Sec. 2, chap. 1 ECA: the ECA is not applicable to employment relations subject to public law, ordinary hobbies activities, contracts of work governed by separate provisions.
    Seamen's Act (423/1978, as amended).

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2019    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 6 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4, chap. 1 ECA.
    The probation period can be prolonged retroactively if the employee has been unable to work for at least 30 days during the probation period. In case of a fixed-term contract, the probation period can not be longer than half the duration of the contract. Collective bargaining agreements can stipulate shorter probation periods. The employer must notify the employee of such if they exist.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
    Remarks:
    • Sec. 3, chap. 1 ECA: "justified reason".
      Sec 3a, chap 1 ECA: A fixed term contract with a worker who has been unemployed for at least 1 year is possible without a “justified reason” for a maximum duration of 1 year, with the possibility to renew the contract for 1 additional year.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • Although there are no statutory limitations on the number of successive contracts, the ECA states that "consecutive fixed-term contracts concluded without any justified reason shall be considered valid indefinitely" (sec. 3(2), chap. 1 ECA).
      New since 1 January 2011:
      Source of information: European labour Law Network, FINLAND - Amendment on consecutive fixed term contracts, 01-01-2011 (link provided under "Scope of additional information").
      Sec 3, chap.1 ECA has been amended by Act No 1224/2010 which came into force on 01/01/2011. A new paragraph (3) regarding successive FTcs has been added to sec. 3, which reads as follows:
      "It is prohibited to use consecutive fixed-term contracts when the amount or total duration of fixed-term contracts or the totality of such contracts indicates a permanent need of labour." (sec. 3(3), chap. 1, ECA)
      "The report of the Employment and Equality Committee of the Parliament indicates that the amendment was a reaction to a judgement of the Finnish Supreme Court (Korkein oikeus 2010:11; votes 3-2). Repeated consecutive employment contracts concluded for one year and prolonged per agreement were considered to have a justified reason. The main argument was that a municipality V outsourced kindergarten services to the employer on a contractual annual basis. The employer only provided services to V and the employer's activity was considered to be fully dependent on the decisions made by V. The minority argued that the economic risk was unduly transferred to the employee."
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • No statutory limitation on the maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCS. However the ECA states that "consecutive fixed-term contracts concluded without any justified reason shall be considered valid indefinitely" (sec. 3(2), chap. 1, ECA).
      New since 1 January 2011:
      Source of information: European labour Law Network, FINLAND - Amendment on consecutive fixed term contracts, 01-01-2011 (link provided under "Scope of additional information").
      Sec 3, chap.1 ECA has been amended by Act No 1224/2010 which came into force on 01/01/2011. A new paragraph (3) regarding successive FTcs has been added to sec. 3, which reads as follows:
      "It is prohibited to use consecutive fixed-term contracts when the amount or total duration of fixed-term contracts or the totality of such contracts indicates a permanent need of labour." (sec. 3(3), chap. 1, ECA)
      "The report of the Employment and Equality Committee of the Parliament indicates that the amendment was a reaction to a judgement of the Finnish Supreme Court (Korkein oikeus 2010:11; votes 3-2). Repeated consecutive employment contracts concluded for one year and prolonged per agreement were considered to have a justified reason. The main argument was that a municipality V outsourced kindergarten services to the employer on a contractual annual basis. The employer only provided services to V and the employer's activity was considered to be fully dependent on the decisions made by V. The minority argued that the economic risk was unduly transferred to the employee."
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 15.6 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of third trimester 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2019    

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Obligación de motivar el despido :
Remarks:
  • Sec. 2 & 3, chap. 9, ECA.


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : cualquiera justa causa
Remarks:
  • See: sec.1-3, chap. 7, ECA.
    As a general condition, termination of employment cannot take place without a "proper and weighty reason". Two types of reasons are listed in the ECA: these are reasons connected with the employee's person (conduct, and capacity) and economic reasons.


Motivos prohibidos : embarazo ; licencia de maternidad; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; sexo; orientación sexual ; religión ; opinion política ; nacionalidad ; edad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; discapacidad ; lengua; miembros de la familia en el mismo lugar de trabajo; licencia paternal; participación en una huelga legal; estado de salud ; origen étnico
Remarks:
  • See:
    * Sec. 2, chap. 2, ECA and sec. 8 of the Non-discrimination Act (1325/2014):Prohibition of discrimination.
    * Sec. 2, chap. 7, ECA: Termination grounds related to the employee's person provides a list of invalid grounds.
    * Sec. 9, chap. 7, ECA : Termination in the case of an employee who is pregnant or on family leave.
    Sec. 4, chap. 1 ECA: Discriminatory termination during the probation period.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad ; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares
Remarks:
  • * Workers' representatives:
    Sec. 10, chap. 7, ECA: Dismissal of a "shop steward or elected representatives" based on individual grounds requires the consent of the majority of the employees whom he represents.
    Economic dismissal of those representatives are authorized provided the job they occupy ceases completely and the employer has been unable to find another suitable job or to train the person for some other work.

    * Pregnant women and employees on family leave: sec. 9, chap. 7, ECA deems the dismissal to be based on employee's pregnancy or family leave and places the onus on the employer to prove that the dismissal is based on another reason.
    In addition, sec. 9, chap. 7 ECA states that the employer can terminate the employment relationship with employee on maternity, special maternity, parental or child care on economic grounds only in case of complete cessation of activities.


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2019    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : sin forma particular exigida

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4, chap. 9, ECA: A notice on termination of an employment contract shall be delivered to the employer or its representative, or to the employee, in person. If this is not possible, the notice may be delivered by letter or electronically.
    However, if so requested by the employee, the employer must notify the employee without delay in writing of the date of termination of the employment contract and of the grounds for termination or cancellation known by the employer to have caused the termination (sec. 5, chap.9 ECA).

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • Section 3, Chapter 6, ECA, General notice periods
    “Unless otherwise agreed, the notice periods to be observed by the employer are the following if the employment relationship has continued uninterruptedly:
    1) 14 days, if the employment relationship has continued for up to one year;
    2) one month, if the employment relationship has continued for more than one year but no more than four years;
    3) two months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than four years but no more than eight years;
    4) four months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than eight years but no more than 12 years;
    5) six months, if the employment relationship has continued for more than 12 years.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año
      • 14 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • 4 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • 6 mes(es) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 4, chap. 6, ECA.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Remarks:
    • Section 3a has been repealed by Act 204/2017.

      See also sec. 48 of the ACU, applicable only to undertakings employing at least 20 workers: When the employer proposes measures that may lead to termination (on economic grounds), he or she should also inform the employment office.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Remarks:
    • However, according to the Act on Co-operation within Undertakings (2007), notification to worker's representatives and negotiation are compulsory when the dismissal affects a single worker provided such dismissal is based on financial and productive grounds, and the undertakings employs at least 20 workers. (see sec. 44-53 ACU)

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2019    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    The ACU provides for a specific cooperation procedure applicable to dismissals on financial or productive grounds of one or several employees.
    However, procedural requirements regarding information provided by the employer to the worker's representatives only apply to dismissal of over 10 workers over a period of 90 days.

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 44 ACU: scope of application of the cooperation procedures.
      On the information requirements: see art. 47 ACU and sec. 3b, chap. 9 ECA.
      Sec. 13(12), chap. 13 ECA, the application of the procedural requirements for terminations listed in Chapter 9 of the ECA can be derogated by collective agreement

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 45-51 ACU.
      Note that section 47 differentiates information requirements based on the number of employees concerned by the dismissal (under or above 10 employees).
      When the dismissal concerns less than 10 employees over a period of 90 days, information shall be directly given to the employees or their representatives if the employees so request.

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 48 ACU: applicable to the economic dismissal of one or more employees.
      Section 3a has been repealed by Act 204/2017.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 45-51 ACU on negotiation.
      Sec. 53 ACU on communication of the employer's report regarding the decisions adopted on the basis of the negotiation.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 49-50 ACU.

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación:

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 6, chapt. 6, ECA: “If an employee is given notice on the basis of chapter 7, sections 3 or 7, and the employer needs new employees within four months of termination of the employment relationship for the same or similar work that the employee given notice had been doing, the employer shall offer work to this former employee if the employee continues to seek work via an Employment and Economic
      Development Office. However, if the employment relationship has lasted without interruption for at least 12 years prior to its termination, the re-employment period shall be six months."

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2019    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • No statutory severance pay.

      Employers employing at least 30 workers must provide free vocational coaching or training courses to workers, which they have terminated based on economic reasons and which have worked for them for at least 5 years, sec. 13, chap. 7 ECA. This entitlement can be waived by collective agreement, sec 7(11), chap. 13 ECA.

      Notas / Comentarios
      No statutory severance pay or redundancy payment.

      Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2019    

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      Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

      Remarks:
      • See: sec. 2, chap. 12 ECA.

      Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :
      * Groundless termination of employment: min. 3 months' pay and max. 24 months' pay.

      * Failure to observe the procedural requirements applicable to economic dismissal: max. 30 000 EUR.

      Remarks:
      • * Compensation for groundless termination of employment: sec. 2, chap. 12 ECA.
        The minimum amount of 3 months is not applicable to dismissals based on financial and production-related grounds or a reorganization procedure.
        For shop stewards and elected representatives, the maximum amount is 30 months' pay.

        In cases of discriminatory terminations, the compensation which would have been received for the same infraction under the Non-Discrimination Act (1325/2014) must be taken into account, when determining the compensation received. (According to sec. 24 of the Non-Discrimination Act, the compensation must be equitably proportionate to the severity of the act, taking into account the type, extent and duration of the infringement but also attempts of the offender to preclude or remove the consequences of the actions).

        In case the former employee has received unemployment allowances before being granted the compensation payment, up to 75% of these allowances payment can be deducted from the final sum, sec. 3, chap. 12 ECA.


        * Failure to observe the procedural requirements applicable to economic dismissal: sec. 62 ACU.

      Posibilidad de readmisión: No

      Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

      Remarks:
      • No statutory provision found.

      Corte o Tribunal competente : jurisdicción ordinaria

      Remarks:
      • In Finland, individual labour disputes over rights are heard by ordinary courts as apposed to disputes connected with collective agreements which are dealt with by labour courts. (See Act on the Labour Court 646/19974)

      Arbitraje: No

      Remarks:
      • No statutory provision found.

      Información adicional - 2019    

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      Enlances

      ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 »