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República Checa

Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2010    

Referencias Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): 20
  • Exclusion only applicable to collective dismissals: see definition of collective dismissal in art. 62 (1) LC.
    However, the rules on individual dismissals apply to all enterprises.

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas: funcionarios publicos; policía; ejercito; magistratura
  • See sec. 5 (4) LC : "The labour relations of judicial trainees, public prosecutors, junior lawyers and employees, who perform state administration in administrative authorities shall only be subject to the Labour Code where it is so expressly laid down in this Code or in another Act".

    European Commission, Termination of Employment Relationship - Legal situation in the following Member States of the European Union: Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, 2007, [hereafter cited as: European Commission Study, 2007], p. 21: "There is a separate special regulation of employment (service) relationship in the following cases, where ordinary rules of the Labour Code do not apply: judges and judicial trainees, public prosecutor and their clerks, member of the security forces, members of the armed forces, (other) civil servants"

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2010    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 3 mes(es)

  • Sec. 35 LC

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    • Sec. 39 LC does not refer to any maximum number of successive FTC, but only to a maximum cumulative duration of 24 months.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 24 mes(es)
    • General rule: sec. 39 (2): maximum 24 months.
      In addition, 6 months are necessary between 2 fixed-term contracts.
      However, this limitation (max. 24 months) does not apply in cases listed in sec. 39 (3), i.e.: when the FTC is concluded for the purpose of temporary replacement of an absent employee, when there are serious operational reasons on the part of the employer or reasons relating to the special nature of work to be performed provided that the reasons are specified in a written agreement between the employer and the trade union organization.
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 8.8 %
    • Source: Eurostat, annual average 2010.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2010    

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Obligación de motivar el despido:
  • Sec. 50 (4) LC

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador; capacidad del trabajador; razones económicas
  • Sec. 52 LC provides for a list of valid reasons for dismissal that relate to the worker's conduct, the worker's capacity, or economic reasons.

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil; embarazo; licencia de maternidad; responsabilidades familiares; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; color; sexo; orientación sexual; religión; opinion política; origen social; nacionalidad; edad; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales; discapacidad; cumplimiento del servicio militar o civil; lengua; patrimonio; nacimiento; estado de salud; origen étnico
  • No list of prohibited grounds in the LC but a general prohibition of "any form of discrimination in labour relations" (sec. 16(2) LC).
    There is however an express reference to non discrimination for "claiming rights ensuing from the labour relations in a lawful manner" (Sec. 14(2) LC)
    A list of prohibited grounds with relation to discrimination in labour relations is provided in sec. 4 (2) of the Employment Act (2004).

    Note that the adoption of an Anti-discrimination Act has been discussed at the Parliament but no agreement has been reached so far (2009).

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares; trabajadores que desempeñan servicio militar/servicio alternativo; trabajadores que ejercen cargo de elección o una función política
  • Sec. 53 (1) LC establishes a prohibition of notice during a "protection period". That applies to:
    * pregnancy
    * maternity and parental leave
    * recognized temporary inability to work due to illness or injury
    * military obligations
    * unpaid leave to exercise of a public office
    * night workers temporary unfit
    Note that except for pregnant women and employee on maternity or parental leave, the protection is not absolute (sec. 54 LC)
    Sec. 61 (2) LC: Special protection for trade union's representatives: mandatory consent of the trade union prior to dismissal.

Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2010    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

  • Sec. 50(1) LC

Plazo de preaviso:
  • Sec. 51 LC : "The notice shall be at least 2 months". No reference to the length of service.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • 2 mes(es).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • 2 mes(es).

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: No

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores:

    • Sec. 61 (1) LC. Notification is mandatory in both cases of ordinary dismissal and immediate termination (serious misconduct).

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    • However, according to sec. 61 (2), (3), (4) LC approval by the trade union is requested when the dismissal or the immediate termination concerns a trade union member. In the absence of consent, such dismissal is void unless ruled otherwise by the Court.

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2010    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    Over a period of 30 days, at least:
    1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 100 employees
    2) 10% of employees out of a total of 101 to 300 employees
    3) 30 employees out of a total of more than 300 employees

    • Sec. 62(1) LC.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores):

    • 30 days in advance: sec. 62 (2) LC.

    Notificación a la administración:

    • 30 days in advance: sec. 62 (4) LC.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores:

    • Sec. 62 (2), (5) LC.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    • No criteria listed in the legislation.
      However sec. 62 (2) e) and 62 (4) state that the selection criteria should be one of the elements to be communicated to the labour office and to the trade union within the framework of the process of consultation.

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    • Sec 62 (3) LC refers to the purpose of consultation being "to reach an agreement, in particular with regards to measures aiming at prevention or reduction of collective dismissals, the mitigation of their adverse implications for employees, especially the possibility of their placement in suitable jobs at the other employer's places of work".
      However, the formal adoption of a social plan is not a requirement.

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2010    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    • No statutory severance pay except in the event of a dismissal of an employee who is not allowed to perform his work due to an industrial injury or occupational disease (sec. 67(1) LC)
      Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
      • Sec. 67 LC: This section refers to "an amount of at least three times the average earnings" for economic dismissal.
      • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 3 mes(es)

      Notas / Comentarios
      1) dismissal based on the worker's conduct or capacity: no severance pay
      2) dismissal (individual and collective) for economic reasons: redundancy payment
      3) dismissal of an employee who is not allowed to perform his work due to an industrial injury or occupational disease: severance pay (at least 12 months) (sec. 67(1) LC)

      Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2010    

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      Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte:

      • Sec. 69 (1) LC

      Posibilidad de readmisión:

      • Sec. 69 (1) LC.
        As a consequence of a court's decision of the invalidity of termination of the employment relationship by the employer, continuation of that relationship is the rule, unless the employee has no interest in further continuation.

      Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

      Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

      • Sec. 72 LC refers to the competent Court. No labour courts in the Czech Rep.

      Arbitraje: No

      Información adicional - 2010    

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      Profile of National Legislation covering Termination of Employment (no longer updated) »