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Bulgaria
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2016    

Referencias
  • Labour Code [LC], SG, No. 26 and No. 27, 1986, as subsequently amended up to 30.12.2016 (SG No. 105)
    [Note: The English version of the Labour Code (NATLEX) covers updates only until 2004. However, subsequent amendments have been reviewed by the researchers.
    The updated Labour Code is available in Bulgarian at: https://www.lex.bg/laws/ldoc/1594373121; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Employment Promotion Act, SG, No. 112, 2001, as subsequently amended up to 29.12.2015 (SG, No. 105)
    An updated version is available in Bulgarian at: https://www.mlsp.government.bg/ckfinder/userfiles/files/politiki/zaetost/zakonodatelstvo/ZAKON_za_nasyrcavane_na_zaetostta_12_2015.docx; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): 20
Remarks:
  • Exclusion only applicable to collective dismissals: see collective dismissal definition in Supplementary provisions, § 1 (9) LC.
    The rules on individual dismissals apply to all enterprises.

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos ; policía ; ejercito ; magistratura
Remarks:
  • No details on the scope of application in the LC.
    However see : Prof. Vassil Mrachkov, "Termination of employment relationships - The legal situation in Bulgaria", EU Commission, 2006, p. 14. Available at:
    ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=4625&langId=en

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2016    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 6 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Art. 70 LC

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
    Remarks:
    • Fixed Term Contracts are regulated in the Art. 68 LC which states the following:
      (1) An employment contract for a fixed term shall be concluded:
      1. for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise;
      2. until completion of some specified work;
      3. for substitution for an employee who is absent from work;
      4. for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination.
      5. (New SG, No.25/2001) for a certain mandate, where such has been specified for the respective body.
      (2) (New SG, No. 48/2006) Employees with a temporary contract under par. 1 have the same rights and obligations as employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time. They can not be put in a disadvantage only because time-sensitive nature of their employment compared to employees under an employment contract for an indefinite time, performing the same or similar work in the enterprise, unless the law sets the benefit of some rights depending on the qualification or skills acquired. Employees on fixed-term contracts can not be placed in a less favorable position compared to other employees who work on contract for an indefinite time.
      (3) (New SG No. 48/2006) Fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 shall be concluded for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired
      employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation.
      (4) (New SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of
      temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. Such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter
      period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under
      paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work
      only once for a period of at least one year.
      (5) (New SG No. 48/2006) An employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1, concluded in violation
      of paragraphs (3) and (4), shall be deemed concluded for an indefinite period of time.
      (6) (SG No. 7/2012) Fixed term contract for a long-term mission may be concluded for a position designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service.
      (7) (SG No. 48/2006, SG No. 7/2012) An employer shall provide timely written information to employees on fixed term contracts about job locations and positions that can be filled by contract for an indefinite time, in order to provide them with the opportunity for permanent employment. Such information shall be provided to the representatives of trade unions and representatives of employees under Art. 7, para. 2.
      (8) (SG No. 48/2006, Sg No. 7/2012) If possible, the employer shall take measures to facilitate the access of employees on temporary contracts to vocational training to improve their skills and opportunities for career and transferring to another job.
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
    Remarks:
    • According to the LC fixed term contract shall be concluded for a definite period which shall not be longer than 3 years, insofar as a law or an act of the Council of Ministers do not provide otherwise - for execution of temporary, seasonal or short-term works and activities, as well as with newly hired employees in enterprises that have been declared bankrupt or in liquidation (Art 68.1.1 and Art. 68.3 LC).
      Also, fixed term contract can be concluded until completion of some specified work (art.68.1.2), for substitution for an employee who is absent from work (Art.68.1.3), for working at a job which is to be taken through a competitive examination, for the time until it is taken on the basis of the competitive examination (Art. 68.1.4).

      In 2012, the amendment SG No. 7/2012 allows fixed term contract to be concluded for a long-term mission designated for posting in the foreign representation of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad under the Foreign Service (Art. 68.6 LC).

  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 1
    Remarks:
    • General rule: no renewal.

      However art. 68 (4) LC provides for exceptions stating that a fixed term employment contract pursuant to paragraph (1), subparagraph 1 may be concluded for a period of not less than one year and for works and activities that are not of temporary, seasonal or short-term nature. According to the same article, such an employment contract may also be concluded for a shorter period upon request in writing by the employee. In such cases the fixed term employment contract under paragraph (1), sub-paragraph 1 may be repeatedly concluded with the same employee for the same type of work only once for a period of at least one year.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 36 mes(es)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 68.1.1 LC provides for 36 months as a maximum duration of successive fixed term contracts.
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 3.5 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016:
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2016    

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Obligación de motivar el despido :
Remarks:
  • The Labour Code does not specify whether the employer shall provide reasons for dismissal.
    However, see:
    - Art. 328 LC: exhaustive list of 12 situations when dismissal with notice is authorized;
    - Art. 330 LC: exhaustive list of 8 situations when dismissal without notice is authorized.
    - Art. 190 LC lists authorized grounds for disciplinary dismissal.


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : conducta del trabajador ; capacidad del trabajador ; razones económicas
Remarks:
  • Art. 328 LC lists 12 situations when dismissal with notice is authorized.

    Art. 330 LC lists 8 situations when dismissal without notice is authorized. Authorized grounds disciplinary dismissal are listed in art. 190 LC.


Motivos prohibidos : estado civil; responsabilidades familiares; raza; color; sexo; orientación sexual ; religión ; opinion política ; origen social ; nacionalidad ; edad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; discapacidad ; origen étnico
Remarks:
  • See Art. 8 (3) LC
    See also art. 4 (1) together with art. 21 (on termination of employment) of the Protection from Discrimination Act, 2003.
    In addition, "differences in the contract term and duration of working time" are listed as prohibited grounds of discrimination.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad ; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares ; trabajadores con una invalidez confirmada
Remarks:
  • Art. 333 (1), (3), (5), (6) LC
    * Art. 333 (1) LC lists the categories of workers for which dismissal can only take place after consent of the labour inspectorate has been obtained: mothers of children under 3 years or spouses of persons who have entered their regular military service, employees reassigned due to health reasons, employees suffering from certain diseases, employees on permitted leave.

    * Protection for trade union representatives is provided in art. 333 (1) LC. Prior consent of the trade union is required when dismissal is based on certain grounds (partial closing down of the entreprise or staff cuts, reduction of the volume of work, lack of qualities for efficient work performance, lack of qualifications following changes in the requirement, disciplinary dismissals).

    *Pregnant women can only be discharged under certain grounds such as "force majeure", closing down of the enterprise, refusal to follow the enterprise in the case of relocation. Prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required for disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).
    A women on maternity leave can only be dismissed when the enterprise is closing down (art. 333 (6) LC).


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2016    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : escrita

Remarks:
  • Art. 328 (1) LC

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • Art. 328 (1) together with art. 326 (2) LC
    * The notice period for termination of a contract of unlimited duration must be 30 days, unless a longer period has been agreed by the parties, but not longer than 3 months.
    *Note: the LC also provides that notice period for FTC shall amount to 3 months, but not more than the remaining period of the contract.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • 30 día(s) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 220 LC

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • However pursuant to art. 333 (1) LC, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required :
      1) when the dismissal is based on certain grounds: partial closing down of the enterprise or staff cuts, lack of the qualities required for the performance of the work, lack of qualification following changes in the requirements for the job, disciplinary dismissals
      and
      2) for workers benefiting from special protection: mothers of children under 3 years, women whose husband are serving their compulsory military service, employees with reduced capacity for work who have been reassigned and disabled persons, employees suffering from certain diseases.

      For pregnant women, prior consent of the labour inspectorate is required in case of disciplinary dismissal (art. 333 (5) LC).

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2016    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    At least:
    1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 99 employees, over a period of 30 days
    2) 10% of employees out of a total of 100 to 299 employees, over a period of 30 days;
    3) 30 employees out of at least 300 employees, over a period of 30 days;


    Remarks:
    • Supplementary provisions, § 1 (9) LC.
      [Note that prior to the 2006 amendments, this definition also included the dismissal for economic reasons of "at least 20 workers regardless of the total number of workers and employees over a period of 90 days. This was deleted from the LC in 2006]

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 130a LC

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 24 of the Employment Promotion Act

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 130a LC

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • No approval by the admnistration required as such for collective dismissals.

      However, pursuant to Art. 25 of the Employment Promotion Act, in the course of the negotiation process, a team of representatives of the workers, the employer and the administration shall draft measures aimed at avoiding or mitigating the effects of the propose redundancy (employment placement, vocational training, alternative employment programmes). The draft shall then be submitted for approval to the Regional Employment Commission.

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Remarks:
    • Except when approval is foreseen under a collective agreement in dismissals due to staff cut or reduction of the volume of work: art. 333 (3) LC.

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Remarks:
    • No selection criteria listed.
      Art. 130a LC only refers to criteria as one of the elements to be communicated to the workers' representatives for consultation.

      Note: Art. 329 LC provides that in case of partial closing down of an enterprise, in case of staff cuts or reduction of the volume of work, the employer shall be entitled to selection and in the interest of production, business may dismiss employees whose positions have not been made redundant, in order to retain employees of higher qualifications and better performance.

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • Art. 25 of the Employment Promotion Act.
      This article refers to measures aiming at "employment placement intermediation, training for attainment of vocational qualification, alternative employment programmes" that have to be drafted by a team of representatives of the workers, the employer and the administration and to be submitted for approval to the Regional Employment Commission.

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2016    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • No statutory severance pay except:
      - upon termination of employment due to an illness for employee of at least 5 years of service: 2 months' gross remuneration (art. 222 (2) LC);
      - upon termination after the employee has acquired the right to a pension : 2 months' pay or 6 months' pay for a job tenure of 10 years (art. 222 (3) LC).
      Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
      Remarks:
      • Not more than 1 month's salary following any individual or collective dismissal on economic grounds. [Art. 222 (1) LC]
      • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 mes(es)
      • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 mes(es)

      Notas / Comentarios
      1) Dismissal not based on economic reasons: no statutory severance pay except:
      - upon termination of employment due to an illness for employee of at least 5 years of service: 2 months' gross remuneration (art. 222 (2) LC);
      - upon termination after the employee has acquired the right to a pension : 2 months' pay or 6 months' pay for a job tenure of 10 years (art. 222 (3) LC).

      2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment.

      Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2016    

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      Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

      Remarks:
      • Art. 225 (1) LC

      Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :
      Compensation for unlawful dismissal shall amount to the employer's gross remuneration for the period of unemployment caused by the dismissal but not for more than 6 months.

      Remarks:
      • Art. 225 (1) LC

      Posibilidad de readmisión:

      Remarks:
      • Art. 344 (1) LC. Right of the employee to demand reinstatement.

      Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

      Corte o Tribunal competente : jurisdicción ordinaria

      Remarks:
      • Art. 344 (4) LC refers to district and regional courts.

      Arbitraje: No

      Duración del procedimiento: 3 mes(es) (legal)

      Remarks:
      • 3 months is the statutory timeframe for the first instance decision.

        Art. 344 (4) provides for a mandatory timeframe for consideration of labour disputes by the courts:
        * within 3 months following the receipt of the claim for the district court and;
        * within 1 month following the receipt of appeal by the regional court.

        Note: The action relating to termination of employment should be brought within 2 months as from the date of termination (art. 358 (1) LC).

      Información adicional - 2016    

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