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Austria
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2016    

Referencias
NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
  • Civil Code [CC], 1811, as last amended in Jun 2016 (BGBl. I Nr. 43/2016) [Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB), available in German only]
    Fecha: Jun 2016; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Works Constitution Act [WCA], 14 December 1973, as last amended in April 2013 (BGBl. I Nr. 71/2013)
    (Arbeitsverfassungsgesetz - ArbVG, available in German only)
    Fecha: Apr 2013; ver la pagina web »
  • Employees (White-collar) Act [EA] of 11 May 1921, as last amended in December 2015 (BGBl. I Nr. 58/2010)
    (Angestelltengesetz AngG, available in German only)
    Fecha: Dec 2015; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Corporate Staff and Self-Employment Provision Act, (BGBl. I Nr. 100/2002), last amended in December 2016 (BGBl. I Nr. 118/2016) [Betriebliches Mitarbeiter und Selbständigenvorsorgegesetz]
    [Note: the English version only include amendments up to BGBl. I Nr. 77/2011]
    Fecha: Dec 2016; ver la pagina web »
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): 5
Remarks:
  • The Works Constitution Act (which lays down the general protection on dismissal) is only applicable to undertakings with more than 5 employees: sec. 40 (1) WCA.
    The definition of collective dismissals excludes enterprises with less than 20 workers: sec. 45a Labour Market Promotion Act.

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos ; trabajadores de la agricultura ; trabajadores domésticos ; policía ; ejercito ; ditectores
Remarks:
  • The CC, WCA and WC Employees Act are the main acts considered for this review.
    On categories excluded, see: sec. 33 WCA.
    Sec. 36 (2) WCA : managers and directors.
    There are specific acts regulating employment conditions of specific categories of workers such as journalists, actors (Journalist Act, Theatrical Artists Act)

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2016    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 1 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • 1 month for white-collar workers: see sec. 19 White-collar Employees Act.
    Note: The probationary period for blue collar workers is governed by collective agreements. However, secondary sources refer to 1 month as being the maximum trial period.
    (See Eurofound: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/AUSTRIA/ANCHOR-PROBEARBEITSVERH-AUML-LTNIS-AT.htm)

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin limitación para el primero CDD
    Remarks:
    • No specific reason required for resorting to a FTC for the first time.
      See however OECD employment protection legislation database, Austria, 2013: "a succession of FTC will automatically result in an open-ended employment contract of indeterminate length unless objective and material reasons can be shown to justify the need to renew a fixed-term contract", (available at www.oecd.org/els/emp/oecdindicatorsofemploymentprotection.htm).
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • Subject to courts' ruling on the lawfulness of chain contracts.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • Subject to courts' ruling on the lawfulness of chain contracts.
  • % de trabajadores bajo CDD: 7.9 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, as of third trimester 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2016    

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Obligación de motivar el despido : No

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : ninguno
Remarks:
  • No grounds for dismissals required in the laws reviewed. This does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds.

    For summary dismissals, important reasons are required: sec. 1162 CC. Are considered as "important reasons" those reasons relating to the worker's conduct or capacity (see sec. 82 Commerce Regulations, sec. 27 White-collar employees Act).


Motivos prohibidos : estado civil; embarazo ; licencia de maternidad; responsabilidades familiares; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; sexo; orientación sexual ; religión ; opinion política ; edad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; cumplimiento del servicio militar o civil ; origen étnico
Remarks:
  • Under the Federal Equal Treatment Act (2004, as amended in 2005), are prohibited in connection with dismissals, discrimination on the grounds of sex (including marital and family status), ethnicity, religion, age and sexual orientation (sec. 3 (7) and 17 (1) 7)).
    On pregnancy and maternity leave, see: Maternity Protection Act, sec. 10.
    In addition, sec. 105 (3) 1) WCA provides a list of inadmissible reasons for dismissals: trade union activities (and assimilated : works council members, health and safety representatives..), absence as a consequence of military or civil service, filing a complaint against the employer (well-founded claims in respect of entitlement or benefits arising out of the employment contract).
    When contested before the Court, the judge will assess the existence of prohibited grounds for dismissal or whether it consititutes an unfair dismissal (verpönte Kündigungsmotive or sozialwidrige Kündigungsmotive).



Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad ; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares ; trabajadores mayores/que están a punto de retirarse; trabajadores con discapacidad; trabajadores que desempeñan servicio militar/servicio alternativo
Remarks:
  • The following categories can only be dismissed with prior authorization from the court and only under specific grounds:
    * Pregnant women and women on maternity leave: sec. 10 Maternity Protection Act (as an exception to the general prohibition of dismissal);
    * Employees on parental leave: sec. 7 and 8f Parental Leave Act and 10 Maternity Protection Act (furthermore, even if an employer terminates a pregnant women on the grounds other than her pregnancy for up to 4 months after she gave birth, the female employee who is dismissed only has to prove the probability that the termination was actually due to the pregnancy, so as to invalidate the termination, sec. 10 8) Maternity Protection Act)
    * Works council members: sec. 120 to 122 WCA;
    * Employee performing military service or alternative service.

    In addition, dismissal of a disabled worker requires the prior consent of the invalidity board (sec. 8, Disabled Persons Act).

    Lastly, an employer who intends to terminate an older worker's contract with a tenure of more than 2 years is required to take social aspects (difficulties in finding a job) into account (sec. 105 3) 2. b) WCA).


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2016    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : sin forma particular exigida

Remarks:
  • No specific form required in the legislation.

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • - White-collar workers:
    Sec. 20 (2) White-collar Employees Act:
    The notice period is 6 weeks which increases with the length of service (2 months after 2 years of service, 3 months after 5 years, 4 months after 15 years and 5 months after 25 years).

    - Blue-collar workers:
    The notice period is 14 days in the absence of any other arrangement: sec. 77 Commerce Regulations (for industrial workers).

    - See also: sec. 1159 and 1159b CC: minimum 14-day notice unless the employee is paid on a daily basis or by piece-rate, in which case only one day's notice needs to be given.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • empleados - 6 semana(s) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • empleados - 6 semana(s) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • empleados - 2 mes(es) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • empleados - 2 mes(es) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • empleados - 3 mes(es) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • empleados - 3 mes(es) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • empleados - 4 mes(es) .
      • obreros - 14 día(s) .
      • trabajadores pagados a diariamente o trabajadores a destajo - 1 día(s) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso : No

    Remarks:
    • No statutory provision.
      ILO country profile - termination of employment - on Austria: In current court practice, when the mandatory notice period is not respected, the dismissal is treated as an "unfounded premature dismissal" and the employee is entitled to wages he would have received had the regular notice period been respected.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 105 (2) WCA
      Prior notification to and consultation with the works council, which has 5 days to react. Whether or not the council has objected to the dismissal or has dealt with the case on time affects the possibilities to lodge an appeal, but does not prevent the dismissal from taking effects.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2016    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    Within a period of 30 days, at least:
    1) 5 employees in undertakings with 21 to 99 employees;
    2) 5% of employees in undertakings with 100 to 600 employees;
    3) 30 employees in undertakings with more than 600 employees;
    4) 5 workers over the age of 50.

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 45a Labour Market Promotion Act.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 109 (1) and (2) WCA

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • At least 30 days before the first notice of termination is served to an employee (Sec. 45a Labour Market Promotion Act).

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 109 (1) and (2) WCA

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Remarks:
    • No rules on the determination of selection criteria in the legislation reviewed. Selection criteria are only referred to in sec. 109 (1) as one of the element to be transmitted to the works council within the framework of the notification and consultation process.

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 109 (2) WCA: The council may make proposals for the prevention, elimination or mitigation of the adverse effects of redundancies.

      Note: In undertakings with more than 20 permanent employees, when the proposed measures would affect a significant part of the workforce, the works council may request the conclusion of a social plan (sec. 109 (3) WCA)

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Remarks:
    • No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2016    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 9 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • Same as severance pay (no specific provision for economic dismissal)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 9 mes(es)

    Notas / Comentarios
    The above-mentioned severance pay/redundancy payment are only relevant to worker under an employment contracts concluded before 1 January 2003.

    A new severance pay scheme was introduced by Betriebliches Mitarbeitervorsorgegesetz of 2002, in force since 1 January 2003.

    Under this new scheme which applies to all employment contracts concluded after 1 January 2003, the employer pays pre-defined contributions (1.53 % of the monthly gross wages) to an employee income provision fund. Upon termination of employment (except in case of summary dismissal), any employee in respect of which at least 36 monthly contributions were made (by one or more employers) can chose between receiving severance payment from the fund or saving the entitlement towards a future pension.

    If the employee quits or if job tenure is shorter than three years, no severance payment will be made but the balance of the account is carried over to the next employer.

    Note: The original name of the law was "Betriebliches Mitarbeitervorsorgegesetz". However, it was modified in 2007 in order to include self-employed workers and replaced with "Betriebliches Mitarbeiter and Selbständigenvorsorgegesetz" (in force since 2008).

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2016    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte:

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :

    Remarks:
    • Application of the general civil law rules on damage compensation: reimbursement of actual loss of earnings between dismissal and ruling.

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 105 WCA. No reinstatement as such. However, if the Court finds the dismissal unlawful, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues.

    Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

    Corte o Tribunal competente : tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 105(4) WCA and 50 (1) Labour and Social Court Act.

    Arbitraje:

    Remarks:
    • Chapter 4 Code of Civil Procedure as amended by the New Arbitration Law 2013 ("Schiedsrechts-Änderungsgesetz").

    Información adicional - 2016    

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