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Kazajstán
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2019    

Referencias Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Remarks:
  • Article 8 of the Labour Code

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas: ninguna
Remarks:
  • Article 8 of the Labour Code

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2019    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 3 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Article 36 of the Labour Code

    For workers in executive positions and their deputies, accountants and their deputies, heads of branches and representative of the organizations – the probation may extent to six month period.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
    Remarks:
    • Article 30 of the Labour Code (as of 2017)
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas
    Remarks:
    • Article 29 of the Labour Code
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2 sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • Update as of 2017: Article 30 1(2) LC states that the number of defined 1-year contracts can no exceed two years. That means technically that the maximum number of successive FTCs is two.

      However, Article 30 LC further elaborates on exceptions to Article 30 1.(2) :
      Article 30 1. (3) Contracts for the execution of a particular work;
      Article 30 1. (4) Replacement for the temporarily absent employee;
      Article 30 1. (5) For seasonal work;
      Article 30 1. (6) Migrant workers;
      Article 30 2. Small business owners can hire workers on definite contracts with no time limitations;
      Article 30 5. Contracts of workers in retirement age can can be extended for one year indefinitely.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 2 año(s) sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • See comments above under maximum number of successive FTCs.

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2019    

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Obligación de motivar el despido:
Remarks:
  • Art. 53 of the Labour Code


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador; capacidad del trabajador; razones económicas
Remarks:
  • Art. 52 of the Labour Code states that:

    An employment contract with an employee on the initiative of the employer may be terminated in the following cases:
    1) liquidation of a legal entity employer or termination of the activities of an individual employer;
    2) reduction in staff numbers or positions;
    3) decrease in the volume of production, work performed and services provided, which led to worsening of the economic state of the employer;
    4) unfitness of the employee for the position held or work performed as a consequence of inadequate qualifications;
    5) unfitness of the employee for the position held or work performed as a consequence of health reasons hampering continued performance of the given work;
    6) repeated failure to verify the knowledge on safety and health or industrial safety issues by the employee responsible for ensuring the safety and health of the work of the organization carrying out production activities
    7) a negative result of work performed during a probationary period;
    8) absence of the employee from work without good reason for a period of three or more hours in a row during a single working day (work shift);
    9) presence of the employee at work under the influence of alcohol, narcotics or toxic substances (or their analogues), including in cases of consumption during the working day of intoxicating substances (or their analogues);
    10) refusal to undergo a medical examination to establish the fact of using substances causing a state of alcohol, narcotic, toxicomaniac intoxication, confirmed by the relevant act
    11) violation by the employee of the rules for labour safety or fire safety or traffic safety entailing or capable of entailing serious consequences, including injuries and accidents;
    12) theft (including minor theft) by the employee in the work place of other people’s property, its deliberate destruction or damage, as established by a sentence or court ruling that has come into legal effect;
    13) culpable actions or inaction on the part of an employee dealing with money or goods if these actions or inaction provide grounds for the employer to loose his trust in him;
    14) an immoral act carried out by an employee fulfilling educational functions that is incompatible with continued performance of the given work;
    15) divulgence by the employee of information constituting state secrets or other secrets protected by law that he acquired in connection with performance of his job duties;
    16) repeat failure by the employee to fulfil or duly fulfil his job duties, without good reason, provided a disciplinary sanction has been imposed thereon;
    17) knowing provision by the employee to the employer of false documents or information on conclusion of the employment contract, if the genuine documents or information might constitute grounds for refusal to conclude the employment contract;
    18) violation by the head of the employer’s executive body, his deputy or heads of subdivisions of the employer of their job duties resulting in material damage to the employer;
    19) termination of the employee’s access to state secrets in cases established by the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
    20) absence of the employee from work for over two months in a row as a consequence of temporary disability, with the exception of cases when the employee is on maternity leave or if the relevant disease is included on the list of illnesses for which a longer term of disability is established, approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
    For an employee disabled in connection with an industrial accident or occupational disease, his job (position) is retained until his working capacity is restored or disability established;
    21) a corruption-related crime committed by the employee and excluding, in accordance with a judicial act, the possibility of his continued work.
    22) continuation of the employee's participation in the strike after bringing to their attention the court's decision to recognize the strike as illegal or to suspend the strike;
    23) termination of authority of the head of the executive body, members of the collegial executive body of the legal persons, as well as in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Joint-Stock Companies" employees of the internal audit service and the corporate sector by decision of the owner of the property of the legal entity or authorized by the owner of the legal persons;
    24) the employee's achievement of the retirement age established by clause 1 of Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Pensions in the Republic of Kazakhstan", with the right of annual extension of the term of the employment contract by mutual agreement of the parties;
    25) employees absence from work for more than one month, for reasons unknown to the employer.


Motivos prohibidos: embarazo; licencia de maternidad; responsabilidades familiares; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; sexo; religión; opinion política; origen social; nacionalidad; edad; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales; discapacidad; lengua; patrimonio; identidad de género; lugar de residencia
Remarks:
  • Art. 52 of the Labour Code on the grounds for termination of employment
    Art. 54 of the Labour Code prohibits the termination in the cases of temporary incapacity for work, pregnancy, women with children under the age of three, single mothers with a child under the age of fourteen or a disabled child up to the age of eighteen, other persons raising this category of children without a mother
    Art. 6 of the Labour Code on prohibition of discrimination
    Art. 175 of the Labour Code on the right to strike



Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad; trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares; trabajadores con discapacidad
Remarks:
  • Art. 52 of the Labour Code on the grounds for termination of employment
    Art. 54 of the Labour Code prohibits the termination in the cases of temporary incapacity for work, pregnancy, women with children under the age of three, single mothers with a child under the age of fourteen or a disabled child up to the age of eighteen, other persons raising this category of children without a mother-
    Art. 6 of the Labour Code on prohibition of discrimination
    Art. 175 of the Labour Code on the right to strike


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2019    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks:
  • Art. 53 of the Labour Code

Plazo de preaviso:
Remarks:
  • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that the notice period shall be one month unless otherwise provided for in the collective agreement.

    However, each of the grounds for contract termination outlined in Article 52 LC has its own procedure outlined in Article 53. One month notice is not applicable to all of the grounds. Notice period varies from 10 calendar days to 15 working days to 1 month. Some instances do not indicate on notice period (e.g. medical conditions, grounds for alcoholics).

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: No

    Remarks:
    • Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that with the written consent of the worker the termination can be made effective before the expiration of the notice period.

      Again not applicable to all situations (see above 'notice period').

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Remarks:
    • Update as of 2016: Article 18 (2) of the Trade Union Law provides that the trade union can submit an opinion regarding the termination of the contract of its members.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2019    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    There is no definition of the collective dismissal in the Labour Code

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Article 28.2(2) of the Law on Employment: The employer has to notify, one month in advance, the public service of employment about any contemplated redundancies.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores:

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2019    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • Article 131 of the Labour Code

      The severance pay is the average monthly wage. Article 131.3 notes the possibility of a higher severance pay provided in collective agreement.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • Article 131 of the Labour Code

      Article 131.1 LC states that in case of liquidation, reduction of staff – pay is the average wage for one month.

      However, Article 131.2 LC states that in case of decrease in the volume of production, performed work and services provided by the enterprise, the pay is the average wage for two months.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 mes(es)

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2019    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

    Remarks:
    • Art. 161 of the Labour Code states that the employee shall be paid all wages between the date of dismissal and the date of reinstatement, but not more than six monthly wages.

    Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 161 of the Labour Code states that the employee shall be paid all wages between the date of dismissal and the date of reinstatement, but not more than six monthly wages.

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 161 of the Labour Code

    Conciliación previa obligatoria:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 159 of the Labour Code states that the individual labour disputes are considered by the conciliation commissions and/or courts.

    Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

    Remarks:
    • Art. 159 of the Labour Code