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Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2013    

Referencias
  • Labour Code [LC], dated 10 January 1997 last amended by Royal Kram No. 0707-020 of 20 July 2007
    Fecha: 20 Jul 2007; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 LC

Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : funcionarios publicos ; trabajadores domésticos ; policía ; ejercito ; magistratura ; gente de mar ; personal de vuelo
Remarks:
  • Art. 1 LC

    Apprentices are not excluded from the LL, however termination of apprenticeship contracts is regulated by specific provisions (Arts. 63-64 LC).


Reformas legislativas en curso
Reform on going since 2005


Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2013    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 3 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Art. 68 LC: the probationary period cannot exceed three months for regular employees, two months for specialized workers and one month for non specialized workers.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción
    Remarks:
    • See Art. 66 and 67 LC.
      No limitation on the reasons for concluding a FTC. However there are some procedural requirements: a FTC must be in writing. If not, it becomes a contract of indeterminate duration.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • Art. 67, 5) LC: it can be renewed one or more times, as long as the renewal does not exceed the max. duration of 2 years.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 24 mes(es)
    Remarks:
    • Art 67, 8) LC, confirmed by the Arbitration Council: if the initial FDC plus any extensions exceed two years, the contract automatically becomes a contract of indefinite duration.

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2013    

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Obligación de motivar el despido :
Remarks:
  • Art. 74 LC.


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : cualquiera justa causa
Remarks:
  • Art. 74 LC: no dismissal can take place without a valid reason relating to the worker's aptitude or behavior, based on the requirements of the operation of the enterprise, establishment or group.
    Art. 83 LC on serious offences entailing summary dismissal.


Motivos prohibidos : licencia de maternidad; raza; color; sexo; religión ; opinion política ; origen social ; nacionalidad ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; participación en una huelga legal; nacimiento
Remarks:
  • Art. 12 LC; art. 279 LC (trade union activities); art. 182 LC (maternity leave); art. 333 LC (participation in a strike).


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad
Remarks:
  • Art. 293-295 LC
    The dismissal of a shop steward or a candidate for shop steward can take place only after authorization from the Labor Inspector. Protection extended to former shop steward (art. 282 LC).

    Art. 182 LC: "The employer is prohibited from laying off women during their maternity leave or at a date when the end of the notice period would fall during the maternity leave". This protection only applies during maternity leave and not the entire pregnancy.


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2013    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : escrita

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • 1) For workers under a contract of unspecified duration:

    Art. 75 LC: The minimum period of a prior notice is set as follows:
    - 7 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is less than six months;
    - 15 days, if the worker's length of continuous service is from six months to two years;
    - 1 month, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer then two years and up to five years.
    - 2 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than five years and up to ten years.
    - 3 months, if the worker's length of continuous service is longer than ten years.

    2) Specific rules apply to fixed term contracts.
    Art 73 LC: If the contract has a duration of more than six months, the worker must be informed of the expiration of the contract or of its non-renewal ten days in advance. This notice period is extended to fifteen days for contracts that have a duration of more than one year.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • 15 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • 15 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • 15 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • 2 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • 3 mes(es) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 77 LC.

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 21 LC : compulsory written notification to the Ministry of Labour every time an employer hires or dismisses a worker.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • Except for worker's representatives: art. 293 LC.

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2013    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    The Labour Code refers to mass lay-off resulting from a reduction in an establishment's activity or an internal reorganization but does not specify the number of employee concerned.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • See art. 95 LC: notification to the Labour Inspector in the event of mass lay-off.
      See also art. 21 LC: notification of every dismissal (not specific to collective dismissal)

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Remarks:
    • No approval required. However, in exceptional cases, Minister in charge of Labor can suspend the lay off for 2 x 30 days (Art. 95 LC).

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio):

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC (professional qualifications, seniority within the establishment, and family burdens of the workers).

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC: The employer must solicit the worker's representatives for suggestions, primarily, on measures taken to minimize the effects of the reduction on the affected workers.

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 95 LC: during 2 years.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2013    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • Article 89 LC: If the worker is dismissed for a reason other than serious misconduct, the employer must pay an indemnity for dismissal. The amount of the indemnity depends upon the employee's length of continuous service:
      - for employment from 6 to 12 months: 7 days wages and benefits;
      - for employment over 1 year: 15 days wages and benefits for each year of employment, up to a maximum of six months' wages.
      This only applies to contracts of an unspecified duration.

      Note that art. 73 LC provides that: at the expiration of a fixed-term contract (the end of the term or completion of the task), the employer must pay the employee severance pay which may be fixed by collective agreement but should not in any case be less than 5 per cent of the total wages paid during the length of the contract.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 7 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 7 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 15 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 30 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 60 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 75 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 150 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 6 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • No specific redundancy payment: same severance pay.
      See Article 89 LC: If the worker is dismissed for a reason other than serious misconduct, the employer must pay an indemnity for dismissal. The amount of the indemnity depends upon the employee's length of continuous service:
      - for employment from 6 to 12 months: 7 days wages and benefits;
      - for employment over 1 year: 15 days wages and benefits for each year of employment, up to a maximum of six months' wages.
      This only applies to contracts of an unspecified duration.

      Note that art. 73 LC provides that: at the expiration of a fixed-term contract (the end of the term or completion of the task), the employer must pay the employee severance pay which may be fixed by collective agreement but should not in any case be less than 5 per cent of the total wages paid during the length of the contract.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 7 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 7 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 15 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 30 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 60 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 75 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 150 día(s)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 6 mes(es)

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2013    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 94 LC: The amount of damages is fixed by the Court, in light of the local custom, the type and importance of the services rendered, the employee's seniority and age, any deductions or payments made to a retirement plan, and other circumstances establishing the existence and the extent of the harm incurred. Instead of providing proof of damages in court, the worker can ask for a lump sum payment equal in amount to the indemnity for dismissal (Art. 91 LC).

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 385 LC

    Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

    Remarks:
    • Preliminary conciliation is only an option for individual disputes.
      Art. 300 LC: Prior to any judicial action, an individual dispute can be referred for a preliminary conciliation, at the initiative of one of the parties, to the Labour Inspector of his province or municipality.

      However, conciliation is mandatory for collective (interest and rights) disputes : art. 305 LC.

    Corte o Tribunal competente : tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • See Article 387 LC: Labour courts shall be created that have jurisdiction over the individual disputes occurring between workers and employers regarding the execution of the labour contract or the apprenticeship contract.

      However, labour courts have not been established yet. Pending the creation of those Courts, ordinary courts have jurisdiction over labour disputes pursuant to art. 389 LC.

    Arbitraje:

    Remarks:
    • Settlement by the Arbitration Council is compulsory when conciliation failed for collective disputes (rights and interest): art. 309 LC.
      The arbitration council has developed a body of reliable jurisprudence on termination of employment.
      http://www.arbitrationcouncil.org/eng_index.htm

    Información adicional - 2013    

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    Enlances

    Former ILO Termination of Employment Digest - Cambodia (last updated in 2006) »