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Zambia
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2019    

Referencias
  • The Employment Act [EA], Chapter 268, (Act No. 57 of 1965, as last amended by Act No. 20 of 2017)
    Fecha: 19 Dec 2017; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Industrial and Labour Relations Act, [ILRA] 1993 (No. 27 of 1993), as amended by the Industrial and Labour Relations (Amendment) Act, 1997 (No. 30 of 1997)
    Fecha: 18 Dec 1997; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Industrial and Labour Relations (Amendment) Act, 2008 (No. 8 of 2008)
    Fecha: 24 Sep 2008 (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment Act, Cap. 276 [MWCEA], No. 25 of 1982, as amended by Act No. 13 of 1994
    Fecha: 1994; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (General) Order [MWCEGO], 2010 (S.I. No.2 of 2011)
    Fecha: 30 Dec 2010; ver la pagina web » (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (General) (Amendment) Order, 2012 (Statutory Instrument No. 46 of 2012)
    Fecha: 04 Jul 2012; ver la pagina web »
  • Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (Shop Workers) Order [MWCESO], 2010 (S.I. No. 1 of 2011)
    Fecha: 30 Dec 2010 (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Industrial and Labour Relations (Amendment) Act (No. 19 of 2017)
    Fecha: 19 Dec 2017; ver la pagina web »
  • Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (Shop Workers) (Amendment) Order, 2012 (Statutory Instrument No. 47 of 2012)
    Fecha: 04 Jul 2012; ver la pagina web »
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Categorías de trabajadores excluidas : policía ; ejercito ; magistratura ; funcionarios de prisiones ; cuerpos de seguridad
Remarks:
  • 1)The EA does not apply in relation to:
    (i) persons in the Defence Force (other than locally engaged civilian employees);
    (ii) members of the Zambia Police Force;
    (iii) members of the Zambia Prison Service.
    (see sec. 2(1) EA)
    Under sec. 2(2) of the EA, the Minister of Labour has power to exempt or exclude certain persons or categories of persons from the ambit of the legislation, but to date no such exemptions have been made.
    Casual workers are included in the definition of “employee” since the 2015 Amendment.
    Apprentices are not included within the meaning of "employee" under the EA. (sec. 3 EA).
    - In addition, provisions concerning termination of an oral contract for reason of redundancy do not apply to a bankrupt employer, casual employees, employees on probation, or an employee who was offered alternative employment and unreasonably refused the offer (sec 26B(4) EA).

    2) The ILRA does not apply to:
    (a) the Zambia Defence Force;
    (b) the Zambia Police Force;
    (c) the Zambia Prison Service;
    (d) the Zambia Security Intelligence Service; and
    (e) judges, registrars of the court, magistrates and local court justices. (sec. 2 ILRA)

    3) The Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (General) Order 2010 [MWCEGO] which contains provisions on maternity leave, redundancy benefits and summary dismissals does not apply to employees
    - of the Government of the Republic of Zambia;
    - of a local authority;
    - engaged in domestic service;
    - - in occupation where (i) wages and conditions of employment are regulated through the process of collective bargaining conducted under the Industrial and Labour Relations Act, or (ii) employee-employer relationships are governed by specific employment contracts attested by a proper officer, and such conditions shall not be less favourable than the provisions of this Order"; (section (d) amended in MWCE (Amendment), 2012, in both General and Shop Workers Order)

    - in management positions.
    -in a sector for which the Minster, by statutory instrument, has prescribed the minimum wage.

Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2019    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: sin limitación

Remarks:
  • No statutory provisions on the probationary period. However, note that sec. 26B(4)(d) of the Employment Act excludes employees on probation from termination of the contract of employment on the basis of redundancy. The Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (Shop Workers) Order also under Section 6 mentions some provisions only applicable to workers on probationary period, which indicates that it is a lawful legal institution.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • FTC regulated: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción
    Remarks:
    • Employment Act (Amendment) No 15 of 2015 introduced sections 28A, 28B and 28C to the principal Act, regulating short term and fixed term contracts. A fixed-term contract is, according to Section 3 EA, as amended by section 2(a) of 2015 Amendment, a contract of service for:

      a) a period exceeding twelve months, renewable for a further term, subject to section twenty-eight C; or
      b) the performance of a specific task or project to be undertaken over a specified period of time; and whose termination is fixed in advance by both parties.

      Note that there is a thin difference between the categories of “casual employee”, “short-term” worker and “fixed-term contract”: Where a casual employee continues to be employed after the expiration of 6 months temporal limit, the employee ceases to be a casual employee and the contract is deemed to be a short-term contract (section 28A EA, added by 2015 Amendment). If an employee is engaged on a short-term contract and continues to be employed on expiry of this contract (in excess of 12 months), the contract is deemed to be a fixed term contract (section 28B EA, added by 2015 Amendment). On the expiry of cumulative period of fixed term contract, the contract of service is deemed to be a permanent contract (Section 28C EA, added by 2015 Amendment).

      A causal employee (Art. 3EA as amended in 2015):
      - is not permanent in nature;
      - does not require any skill in the performance of the work to be done
      - terms provide for payment at an hourly rate, payable at the end of each day,
      And excludes, according to the new section 12(A)(1): (i) work under a consultancy agreement (ii) piece work (iii) seasonal work (iv) temporary employment (v) part term employment and (vi) flexibilization. Note that the provisions relating to casualisation do not apply to Micro and Small Business enterprise except if the undertaking shall comply with the MWCEA with respect to its employee (Section 3 of the Employment (Amendment) Act of 2015, adding Section 12A to EA)

      On the other hand, a “short term” contract is defined in the 2015 amendment as: contract of service of six months but not exceeding twelve months.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • There is not a maximum number of successive FTCs, however the 2015 Amendment, section 28C (1) refers to a cumulative temporal maximum: FTC may be renewed for subsequent terms, except that the cumulative duration of the successive fixed-term contracts of employment with an employer shall be as prescribed.

      Note sec. 19 EA which relates to the renewal of an oral contract not exceeding 1 month:
      "Each party to an oral contract for a period not exceeding one month shall, on the termination of such contract, be conclusively presumed to have entered into a new oral contract for a further period of the same duration and subject to the same terms and conditions as those of the contract then terminated unless-
      (a) notice to terminate the employment under section twenty has been given by either party and the period of notice has expired; or
      (b) the contract has been terminated by payment in lieu of notice; or
      (c) the contract has been summarily terminated by either party for lawful cause; or
      (d) the contract has been otherwise lawfully terminated under the provisions of this Act:
      Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to-
      (i) contracts expressed to be terminable without notice or to which this section does not apply;
      (ii) contracts specifically expressed to be for one period of fixed duration and not to be renewable;
      (iii) daily contracts where the wages are paid daily."

      No statutory provision regulating renewals of written contracts.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 24 mes(es)

Notas / Comentarios
Fixed-term contract is, according to Section 3 EA, as amended by section 2(a) of 2015 Amendment, a contract of service for:

a) a period exceeding twelve months, renewable for a further term, subject to section twenty-eight C; or
b) the performance of a specific task or project to be undertaken over a specified period of time; and whose termination is fixed in advance by both parties.

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2019    

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Obligación de motivar el despido :
Remarks:
  • Employment (Amendment) Act of 2015 inserts in section 36(1)(c) on termination of employment the obligation to provide reasons to the employee. The section reads now: A written contract of service shall be terminated (c) in any other manner in which a contract of service may be lawfully terminated or deemed to be terminated whether under the provisions of this Act or otherwise except that where the termination is at the initiative of the employer, the employer shall give reasons to the employee for the termination of that employee’s employment”.


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado) : conducta del trabajador ; capacidad del trabajador ; razones económicas
Remarks:
  • - Termination of written contracts is regulated by sec. 36 EA, amended in 2015, which reads as follows: "(1) A written contract of service shall be terminated
    (a) by the expiry of the term for which it is expressed to be made; or
    (b) by the death of the employee before such expiry; or
    (c) in any other manner in which a contract of service may be lawfully terminated or deemed to be terminated whether under the provisions of this Act or otherwise.
    (2) Where owing to sickness or accident an employee is unable to fulfil a written contract of service, the contract may be.
    […] ” terminated on the report of a registered medical practitioner."
    (3) The contract of service of an employee shall not be terminated unless there is a valid reason for the termination connected with the capacity, conduct of the employee or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking


Motivos prohibidos : estado civil; embarazo ; licencia de maternidad; responsabilidades familiares; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; color; sexo; religión ; opinion política ; origen social ; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales ; disfrute legal de licencias ; origen étnico
Remarks:
  • Section 36(4) EA, added by the 2015 Amendment, states: Reasons that are not valid for termination of contracts include
    (a) union membership or participation in union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of the employer, within working hours;
    (b) seeking office as, acting or having acted in the capacity of, an employee’s representatives;
    (c) the filing of a complaint, the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws or recourse to administrative authorities;
    (d) race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion or affiliation, ethnicity, tribal affiliation or social status of the employee; or
    (e)absence from work during leave or a rest period in accordance with a written law.

    See also:
    * Sec. 108 ILRA: The prohibited grounds for dismissal listed are race, sex, marital status, religion, political opinion or affiliation, tribal extraction or status of the employee.
    * On trade union activities and membership, and filing a complaint against the employer, see sec. 5 ILRA.
    * Dismissal based on pregnancy or maternity leave is prohibited in sec. 15B EA and clause 7(4) of both MWCEGO and MWCESO.
    * On temporary work injury or sickness, see sec. 54(1) LC.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores ; mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad ; trabajadores con licencia temporal por enfermedad
Remarks:
  • "Workers' representatives" were added in the category of workers enjoying special protection in 2017.

    - The EA also provides for statutory sick leave with full pay and employment cannot be terminated on this ground during this leave period (sec. 54).
    - Sec. 15B EA prohibits termination of employment for reasons connected with pregnancy and establishes a presumption of violation of such prohibition (in the absence of proof to the contrary) if the employer terminates the contract of a female employee within six months after delivery.
    - Sec. 36(4)(b) EA prohibits the termination of an employment contract for an employee seeking office as, acting or having acted in the capacity of, an employee’s representatives.


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2019    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador : sin forma particular exigida

Remarks:
  • Sec. 20(3) EA: Notice to terminate an oral contract may be either verbal or written.
    In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.

Plazo de preaviso :
Remarks:
  • Oral contract:
    - Sec. 20 (2) EA provides that in the absence of any agreement providing for a period of notice of longer duration, the length of such notice shall be-
    (a) subject to the provisions of paragraph (b), twenty-four hours where the contract is for a period of less than a week;
    (b) fourteen days where the contract is a daily contract under which, by agreement or custom, wages are payable not at the end of the day, but at intervals not exceeding one month;
    (c) thirty days where the contract is for a period of one week or more".
    - The notice period to be given to the employee in the event of termination by redundancy is 1 month (see sec. 10 MWCEGO and sec. 9 MWCESO).

    In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
      • contrato oral ≥ 1 semana - despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
      • contrato oral ≥ 1 semana - despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
      • contrato oral ≥ 1 semana - despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • despido por razones económicas - 1 mes(es) .
      • contrato oral ≥ 1 semana - despido por razones no económicas - 30 día(s) .

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 21 EA:
      "Either party to an oral contract of service may terminate such contract-
      (a) in the case of a contract which may be terminated without notice, by payment to the other party of a sum equal to all wages and other benefits that would have been due to the employee if he had continued to work until the end of the contract period;
      (b) in any other case, by payment to the other party of a sum equal to all wages and other benefits that would have been due to the employee at the termination of the employment had notice to terminate the same been given on the date of payment."
      See also sec. 19 (b) EA: "Each party to an oral contract for a period not exceeding one month shall, on the termination of such contract, be conclusively presumed to have entered into a new oral contract for a further period of the same duration and subject to the same terms and conditions as those of the contract then terminated unless-
      (b) the contract has been terminated by payment in lieu of notice".

      In the legislation reviewed, no information has been found with regards to written contracts.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Remarks:
    • Except in the event of individual termination by reason of redundancy (sec. 26B(2) EA, see below - collective dismissal)

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores : No

    Remarks:
    • Except in the event of individual termination by reason of redundancy (sec. 26B(2) EA, see below - collective dismissal)

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Notas / Comentarios
    - This section deals with individual terminations of oral contracts.
    Termination of written contracts is regulated by sec. 36 EA which reads as follows: "(1) A written contract of service shall be terminated
    (a) by the expiry of the term for which it is expressed to be made; or
    (b) by the death of the employee before such expiry; or
    (c) in any other manner in which a contract of service may be lawfully terminated or deemed to be terminated whether under the provisions of this Act or otherwise except that where the termination is at the initiative of the employer, the employer shall give reasons to the employee for the termination of that employee’s employment.
    (2) Where owing to sickness or accident an employee is unable to fulfill a written contract of service, the contract may be terminated on the report of a registered medical practitioner.
    (3) The contract of service of an employee shall not be terminated unless there is a valid reason for the termination connected with the capacity, conduct of the employee or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking.
    (4) Reasons that are not valid for termination of contracts include
    (a) union membership or participation in union activities outside working hours or, with the consent of the employer, within working hours;
    (b) seeking office as, acting or having acted in the capacity of, an employee’s representatives;
    (c) the filing of a complaint, the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws or recourse to administrative authorities;
    (d) race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion or affiliation, ethnicity, tribal affiliation or social status of the employee; or
    (e)absence from work during leave or a rest period in accordance with a written law. "

    No further information is given as to termination of a written contract.
    - Individual terminations for reason of redundancy are dealt with under the section on collective dismissals.

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2018    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    There is no definition of collective dismissal in the EA.
    The EA provides for a specific procedure applicable to any redundancy which is defined as an individual termination for economic reasons.

    Remarks:
    • Redundancy is regulated by sec. 26B EA (inserted in 1997), and is defined as follows:
      "(1) The contract of service of an employee shall be deemed to have been terminated by reason of redundancy if the termination is wholly or in part due to-
      (a) the employer ceasing or intending to cease to carry on the business by virtue of which the employee was engaged; or
      (b) the business ceasing or reducing the requirement for the employees to carry out work of a particular kind in the place where the employee was engaged and the business remains a viable going concern."

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores) :

    Remarks:
    • Sec 26B(2)(b) EA establishes consultation requirements whenever an employer intends to dismiss employees on grounds of redundancy. The employer shall afford the representatives of the employee an opportunity for consultations on-
      - (i) the measures to be taken to minimise the terminations and the adverse effects on the employees;
      - (ii) the measures to be taken to mitigate the adverse effects on the employees concerned including finding alternative employment for the affected employees;

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 26B(2)c) EA: notification to the "proper officer" which means the Labour Commissioner and any other officer not less than 60 days before termination takes effect.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores :

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 26(2)a) EA establishes that the employer shall provide notice of not less than thirty days to the representative of the employee on the impending redundancies and inform the representative on the number of employees to be affected and the period within which the termination is intended to be carried out.

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales : No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

    Remarks:
    • See sec. 26B(2)b) EA:
      "The employer shall afford the representatives of the employee an opportunity for consultations on-
      (i) the measures to be taken to minimise the terminations and the adverse effects on the employees;
      (ii) the measures to be taken to mitigate the adverse effects on the employees concerned including finding alternative employment for the affected employees"

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

    Notas / Comentarios
    The procedure described in this section is applicable to any individual termination for reason of redundancy.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2019    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • • There is no general right to severance pay, as indicated by the Government and reflected in Direct Request of the CEACR, adopted 2016 on the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No 158), available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3300769,103264,Zambia,2016.

      Severance pay is only due if a worker falls within the scope of the Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (general) or (Shop workers) Orders and a proper officer determines that the circumstances of the case do not warrant summary dismissal.
      -, in the event of termination on medical grounds "as certified by a registered medical practitioner or a medical institution", the employee is entitled to a lump sum of not less that 2 months basic pay for each completed year of service (MWCEGO: sec. 9 and MWCESO: sec. 11 (3)).
      Moreover the 2010 Minimum Wage Orders also foresee in their article 12 (General MWCEA) and 11 (Shop Workers) that in case of summary dismissal (where the employer dismisses the employee summarily and without due notice or payment of wages in lieu of notice) and the Labour Commissioner or labour officer determines that the circumstances of the case do not warrant summary dismissal of the employee, the employee so dismissed shall be entitled to payment of severance benefits of no less than two months’ basic pay of each completed year of service.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 8 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 10 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 20 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 40 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • See Minimum Wages and Conditions of Employment (General) Order, 2010 (S.I. No. 2 of 2011), art. 10 and MWCE (Shop Workers) Order 2010 (S.I. No. 1 of 2011), art. 9: redundancy payment shall be not less than 2 months for each completed year of service.
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 8 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 10 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 20 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 40 mes(es)

    Notas / Comentarios
    Compensation is only available in the following cases:
    1) Termination on medical grounds: severance pay
    2) Summary dismissal not considered justified by the labour officer: severance pay
    3) Termination by reason of redundancy: redundancy payment
    4) Termination for any other reasons: no severance pay

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2019    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte:

    Remarks:
    • Sec. 85A ILRA: The Industrial Relations Court may award damages or compensation for loss of employment.
      See also sec. 108 ILRA on discriminatory dismissals and 5 (5) ILRA on dismissal in connection with trade union activities.

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo) :
    When the competent labour officer decides that the circumstances of the case do not warrant summary dismissal, the employee so dismissed in entitled to "payment of severance benefits" of not less than 2 months basic pay for each completed year of service" (MWCEGO sec. 12(3) and MWCESO: sec. 11(3)).

    Posibilidad de readmisión:

    Remarks:
    • See sec. 85A ILRA and 108 ILRA.
      - Sec. 85A ILRA (general powers of the Industrial Relations Court): The Court may "make an order for reinstatement, re-employment or re-engagement".
      - Sec. 108(3)b) ILRA (discriminatory dismissals): "The Court shall, if it finds in favour of the complainant:
      a) grant to the complainant damages or compensation for loss of employment;
      b) make an order for re-employment or reinstatement in accordance with the gravity of the circumstances of each case"

    Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

    Remarks:
    • No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
      However, optional conciliation is foreseen in rule 46 of the Industrial Relations Courts Rules (annexed in the ILRA) which states that:
      "In exercising its powers under these Rules, the Court may, whether by adjourning any proceedings or otherwise, use its best endeavours to ensure that, in any case in which it appears to the Court that there is a reasonable prospect of agreement being reached between the parties, they are enabled to avail themselves of the services of conciliation officers or of other opportunities for conciliation".

    Corte o Tribunal competente : tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • See sec. 85 (4), 85A and 108 ILRA.
      The Industrial Relations Court has jurisdiction over matters specified under the ILRA, such as termination on the grounds of trade union membership or activity and on discriminatory grounds which shall be made within 30 days of the termination (sec. 108 ILRA).
      According to sec. 85(4), ILRA, the court also has jurisdiction to "hear and determine any dispute between any employer and an employee notwithstanding that such dispute is not connected with a collective agreement or other trade union matter". Complaints must be made within 30 days of the event complained of, unless leave is obtained (sec. 85 ILRA).

    Arbitraje: No

    Información adicional - 2019    

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    Enlances

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 »
    Direct Request (CEACR) - adopted 2016, published 106th ILC session (2017)
    Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158) - Zambia (Ratification: 1990)