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Yémen
 


Fuentes y ámbito de aplicación - 2013    

Referencias
  • Labour Code [LC], Act No. 5 of 1995, last amended in 2003
    Fecha: 05 Mar 2003 (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Law No. 25 of 1997 amending certain provisions of the Presidential Order to promulgate the Labour Code No. 5 of 1995 [LCA]
    Fecha: 06 Apr 1997 (ver en NATLEX »)
  • Law No. 35 of 2002 on the organisation of Workers' Trade Unions (unofficial French translation)
    Fecha: 31 Aug 2002 (ver en NATLEX »)
Ámbito de aplicación
Tamaño de las empresas excluidas (≤): ninguna
Categorías de trabajadores excluidas: funcionarios publicos; trabajadores agrícolas; trabajadores domésticos; ejército; magistratura; cuerpos de seguridad estatales; miembros de la familia del empleador; diplomáticos
Remarks:
  • Art. 3(2) LC: The provisions of the LC do not apply to:
    - "employees of the state administration and the public sector;
    - officers of the judiciary and the diplomatic and consular corps;
    - staff of military and security establishments;
    - foreigners seconded to work with the State;
    - foreigners working in the Republic under an international Convention to which the Republic is a party, this exemption being subject to the limits set by the Convention in question;
    - foreigners holding diplomatic or special passports who have obtained a visa and who work in the Republic subject to the conditions of such political visas as may be issued to them;
    - casual workers;
    - persons related to and working with the employer who are effectively his dependants regardless of their degree of kinship;
    - household servants and workers of equivalent status;
    - persons employed in agriculture and pastoral work other than:
    * persons employed in agricultural corporations, establishments or associations or in enterprises which process or market their own products;
    * persons who, on a permanent basis, operate or repair mechanical equipment required for agriculture or permanent irrigation works;
    * persons working in livestock husbandry".


Reformas legislativas en curso

Remarks:
  • See Direct Request CEACR C158, No 2008/79, para. 1:
    "The Committee notes the information contained in the Government's report received in September 2008. In response to the Committee's 2006 direct request, the Government indicates that it has prepared, in coordination with the Office, draft amendments to the Labour Code and submitted them to the social partners and the Office for comments. The draft amendments were then revised in light of comments received. Discussions were held with parties concerned, and the draft was subsequently referred to the Ministry of Legal Affairs for redrafting and referral to the Council of Ministers, with a view to its eventual promulgation by the House of Representatives".

On-going reform


Tipos de contratos de trabajo - 2013    

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Duración maxima del periodo de prueba: 6 mes(es)

Remarks:
  • Art. 28 LC.

Contrato de duración determinada (CDD):
  • CDD regulados: Si
  • Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción
    Remarks:
    • There are no statutory limitations with regard to the use and the renewal of fixed term contract.
      Art. 29 (1) LC stipulates that the duration of a Yemeni worker's contract shall be considered unlimited unless otherwise specified by agreement between the two parties.
  • Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • There are no statutory limitations with regard to renewal of fixed term contract in the LC.
      Art. 29 (2) LC stipulates that a contract of employment shall be considered valid for the same duration as that initially provided for if, upon expiry, the employment relationship between the two parties effectively continues.
  • Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación
    Remarks:
    • There are no statutory limitations in the LC with regard to the possibility of renewing a fixed term contract.
      Art. 29 (2) LC stipulates that if, upon expiry of a fixed term contract, the employment relationship between the two parties effectively continues, the new contract of employment shall be considered valid for the same duration.

Requisitos de fondo de despido (motivos permitidos y prohibidos) - 2013    

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Obligación de motivar el despido: No
Remarks:
  • No express obligation to inform the employee of the reasons for termination except in the event of disciplinary dismissal (for breach of duties) in which cases the employee is allowed to defend himself/herself against the allegations made in an interview with the employer (art. 96 and 97 LC).


Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): razones económicas; conducta del trabajador; capacidad del trabajador
Remarks:
  • - Art. 36 LC provides a list of situations which allow for termination with notice by either party, as follows:
    "(a) if one of the parties fails to observe the terms of the contract or labour legislation [= conduct and capacity related];
    (b) if work permanently ceases, either entirely or in part;
    (c) if there is reduction in the number of workers for technical or economic reasons [= economic reasons];
    (d) if the worker absents himself without a legitimate reason for more than 30 days within the same year or for 15 consecutive days, provided that termination of contract is preceded by a written warning from the employer after 15 days of absence in the former case and seven days in the latter [= conduct related] ;
    (e) if the worker reaches statutory retirement age;
    (f) if the worker is declared unfit to work by decision of the competent medical committee [= capacity related]".

    - In addition, art. 35(1) LC provides for a list of situations giving rise to summary dismissal (=without notice) by the employer. These situations mostly relate to the misconduct of the employee (assuming a fraudulent identity, state of inebriation, assaulting the employer or other employees, causing material loss, carrying a firearm, disclosing secrets). In addition, dismissal without notice is allowed if the worker fails to prove his competence for work during his probationary period and if the worker fails to fulfil basic obligations arising from his contract of employment. No further information given in the LC as to which situations are encompassed within the latter case.
    - Art. 93 LC provides for the possibility to impose dismissal as a disciplinary penalty if the worker commits "a breach of his duties as provided for in this Code or in his contract of employment".



Motivos prohibidos: licencia de maternidad; presentación de una queja contra el empleador; enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal; raza; color; sexo; religión; edad; afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales; lengua; participación en una huelga legal; disfrute legal de licencias
Remarks:
  • 1) Specific prohibitions of dismissal:
    * Article 37 LC provides a list of situations in which the employer is prohibited from terminating the employment contract, as follows:
    - during any of the worker's leave provided for in the LC [This includes maternity leave and sick leave];
    - during the investigation of a dispute between the employer and the worker, provided that such investigation shall not exceed four months, unless the worker commits another violation which requires his dismissal;
    - during the worker's detention by the competent authorities in connection with his work, pending a final decision in the matter.
    * Art. 142 LC prohibits dismissal in the course of settlement of proceedings.
    * Art. 148(2) LC prohibits a employer from dismissing a worker as a result of his/he participation in a lawful strike.
    * Art. 152 LC prohibits dismissal based on trade union activities. See also art. 10 of the Law No. 35 of 2002 on the organisation of Workers' Trade Unions which prohibits dismissal based on trade union membership and activities.
    2) Non-discrimination:
    * Art. 5 LC prohibits discrimination on grounds of sex, age, race, colour, beliefs or language.


Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad; trabajadores con licencia temporal por enfermedad
Remarks:
  • Pursuant to Article 37(1) LC, dismissal of a worker is forbidden during any of the worker's leave provided for in the LC.
    * This protection covers maternity leave but not the entire period of pregnancy. The LC originally provided for a 60 day maternity leave (art. 45 LC). According to the latest amendment to the LC dated April 2008 (not available in English), women are now entitled to a 70 day maternity leave.
    * The protection against dismissal also covers workers in sick sick leave (for ordinary sickness and occupational disease and work injury regulated art. 80 to 83 LC).


Requisitos de forma / procedimiento de despido individual - 2013    

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Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: sin forma particular exigida

Remarks:
  • No specific form of notice required in Art. 38 LC. This provision only stipulates that "a party wishing to terminate the contract shall give the other party prior notice of termination".

Plazo de preaviso:
Remarks:
  • The length of the notice period to be observed by either party is not set according to the length of service but according to the pay period, as follows:
    - 30 days for workers with monthly wages;
    - 15 days for workers with half-monthly wages,
    - one week for workers working on the basis of production or piece work, or hourly or daily or weekly rates (art. 38(3) LC).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años
      • trabajadores pagados mensualmente - 30 día(s).
      • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal - 1 semana(s).
      • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas - 15 día(s).

    Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 38(1) LC.

    Notificación a la administración: No

    Remarks:
    • No mandatory notification. However, art. 38(2) LC stipulates that "if either party refuses to receive notice of termination of the contract, the notice may be deposited with the Ministry or one of its offices".

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Requisitos formales / procedimientos de despido colectivos por razones económicas - 2013    

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    Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados):
    No statutory definition of collective dismissal. The LC allows the employer to "reduce the number of workers or make them redundant as a result of a total or partial stoppage of activity".

    Remarks:
    • Art. 101(2) LC.

    Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

    Notificación a la administración:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 101(1) LC: mandatory notification to the Ministry of of Social Security, Social Affairs and Labour or its competent office and any of the other party concerned in the event of total or partial stoppage of activity.

    Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

    Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

    Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

    Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

    Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación:

    Remarks:
    • Art. 103 LC: When resuming activity, priority shall be given by the employer to the workers affected by the earlier redundancies or workforce reduction provided that they apply for a job in his/ber establishment within one month from the date of announcement of business activity resumption.

    Indemnización por despido e indemnización especifica por despidos económicos - 2013    

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    Indemnización por despido:
    Remarks:
    • According to art. 120(2) LC, at end of their service, where employees are not entitled to monthly pension or a lump-sum payment pursuant to the Social Insurance Act or other regulations, they shall be entitled to receive severance pay equivalent to at least one month's wages for each year of service (calculated on the basis of the last wage received by the employee).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.5 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.75 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 5 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 10 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 20 mes(es)
    Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:
    Remarks:
    • No specific redundancy payment. However, redundancy cases are covered by the general provision on severance pay (art. 120(2) LC).
    • duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.5 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.75 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 2 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 4 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 5 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 10 mes(es)
    • duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 20 mes(es)

    Vías de recurso y procedimientos contenciosos en casos de litigios individuales - 2013    

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    Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

    Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo):
    Max. 6 months' wages in the event of arbitrary dismissal.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 39 LC. The worker is also entitled to such compensation if he or she unilaterally terminates the contract without notice due to the misconduct of the employer (i.e assault, commission of morally offensive acts, employer's negligence in the event of serious threat to the worker's safety...) in accordance with art. 36(2) LC.

    Posibilidad de readmisión: No

    Remarks:
    • No provision on reinstatement in the LC.

    Conciliación previa obligatoria:

    Remarks:
    • See art. 129 LC:
      1. Both parties to a dispute or their representatives shall meet in order to attempt to settle the dispute amicably through negotiation for a maximum period of one month.
      2. If amicable settlement fails, the matter shall then be referred to the Ministry which shall summon the parties with a view to settling the dispute within a period not exceeding two weeks as from the date of referral.

    Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

    Remarks:
    • Labour disputes are first settled by the Arbitration Committee. Appeals of the committee's award are heard by the Labour Division of the competent Court of Appeal (see arts. 132, 140 LC)

    Arbitraje:

    Remarks:
    • Labour disputes shall be settled in first instance by the Arbitration Committee (art. 132 LC).
      See also art. 39 on compensation to be awarded by the Arbitration Committee in the event of arbitrary dismissal.

    Duración del procedimiento: 40 día(s) (legal)

    Remarks:
    • Art. 137(1) LC: Within ten days of the date of submission of a case, the chairman of the Arbitration Committee shall call a meeting to examine the dispute.
      Art. 137(2) LC: The Arbitration Committees shall complete the examination of the cases submitted to them and shall deliver their awards within 30 days of the date of the first hearing.

      In addition, the parties can appeal the Committee's award within one month at the most of the date of notification of the award. The date date for the first hearing must be set within 15 days of the date of the petition for appeal and the Labour Division shall issue a final decision within 30 days of the date of its first hearing (art. 139 LC).

    Información adicional - 2013    

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    Enlances

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158, (1990-2009) »

    Background paper for the Tripartite Meeting of Experts to Examine the Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158), and the Termination of Employment Recommendation, 1982 (No. 166), April 2011 »
    See the country study on employment termination legislation in Yemen: pp. 60-65.