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Italy
 


Source and scope of regulations - 2017    

References
NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
  • Civil Code, Book 5, 1942, as amended by the Legislative Decree No. 82 of 15 June, 2015
    (Codice Civile - available only in Italian)
    Date: 15 Jun 2015; view website » (view in NATLEX »)
  • Act No. 300 of 20 May 1970 on Workers' Protection, also known as the Workers' Statute, as last amended by Legislative Decree 14/09/2015
    (Statuto dei Lavoratori - available only in Italian)
    Date: 14 Sep 2015; view website »
  • Act No. 604 of 15 July 1966 on Individual Dismissals, as amended by Act 108 of 1990
    (Norme sui licenziamenti individuali - only in Italian), as last amended by Act 92/2012 and Decree No. 76 of 2013
    (http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2013/06/28/13G00123/sg)
    Date: 28 Jun 2013; view website »
  • Act No. 108 of 1990 on Individual Dismissals
    (Disciplina dei licenziamenti individuali - only in Italian)
    Date: 11 Sep 1990; view website »
  • Act No. 223 of 1991 (regulates collective dismissals)
    (Norme in materia di cassa integrazione, mobilità, trattamenti di disoccupazione, attuazione di direttive della Comunità europea, avviamento al lavoro ed altre disposizioni in materia di mercato del lavoro - available only in Italian) as last amended by Act 82/2012
    Date: 18 Jul 2012; view website »
  • Legislative Decree No. 368 of 2001 on fixed-term work
    (Decreto legislativo attuazione della direttiva 1999/70/CE relativa all'accordo quadro sul lavoro a tempo determinato concluso dal'UNICE, DAL CEEP e dal CES - available in Italian only)as amended by Act No. 247 of 2007 and last amended by Act No. 92 of 2012, Decree No. 76 of 2013, and Decree No. 34 of 2014 ( http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2014/3/20/14G00046/sg)
    Date: 24 Mar 2014; view website »
  • Legislative Decree No. 75 of 25 May, 2017
    Date: 25 May 2017; view website »
  • Law No. 81 of 22 May, 20017 on Smart-work and Autonomous Work
    Date: 22 May 2017; view website »
  • Legislative Decree No. 179 of 2012 on Further urgent measures for the economic growth of the Country (Decreto-Legge 18 ottobre 2012, n. 179. Ulteriori misure urgenti per la crescita del Paese.
    Date: 18 Oct 2012; view website »
  • Legislative Degree No. 81 of 2015 on Organic Regulations of Employment Contracts and Revision of the Norms Concerning Labour, in Accordance with Article 1, Paragraph 7, of Law No. 183 of December 10, 2014
    Date: 10 Dec 2014; view website »
  • JOBS ACT, (Law No. 183, from 10 December, 2014), under which the following legislative decrees were brought:
    Legislative Decree No. 22 of 4 March, 2015 on the reform of the unemployment, available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/3/6/15G00036/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 23 of 4 March, 2015 on the contracts and increasing protection, and the reform of the penalties in the cases of illegal termination, available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/03/06/15G00037/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 80 of 15 June 2015 on the reconciliation of the work-life balance, available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/06/24/15G00094/sg , available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/06/24/15G00095/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 81 of 15 June, 2015 on the new standards on para-subordinate cooperation, on tasks (modifies art. 2103 of the Civil Code) on reorganization of the non-standard types of work (repealed Legislative Decree 368/2001 on termination of employment, repealed Decree 167/2011 on Apprenticeship and introduced many amendments to Legislative Decree 276/2003), available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/06/24/15G00095/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 148 of 14 September, 2015, available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/09/23/15G00160/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 149 of 14 September, 2015 on the reform of Inspection Activities (Labour Inspection), available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/09/23/15G00161/sg, available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/09/23/15G00161/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 150 of 14 September, 2015 of labour services and active policies, , available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/09/23/15G00162/sg
    Legislative Decree No. 151 of 15 September, 2015, on long distance contracts and termination and hiring of the people with disabilities, and the protection of safety and health at work (modifies art. 4 of zhe Law 300/1970 (control and long distance) and Legislative Decree 81/2008 (safety and health), available at: http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2015/09/23/15G00164/sg
    Date: 10 Dec 2014; view website »
  • Legislative Decree No. 175 of 19 August, 2016
    Date: 19 Aug 2016; view website »
Scope
Size of enterprises excluded (≤): 15
Remarks:
  • The Worker's Statute excludes enterprises with less than 15 employees (or less than 5 in the agricultural sector) from specific aspects related to dismissals and worker's representatives (see: art. 35). This exclusion entails consequences on the available remedies for unfair dismissal.
    In addition, the Act No. 223 on collective dismissal is only applicable to undertakings employing more than 15 workers (art.1).

Workers' categories excluded: civil/public servants; domestic workers; police; army; judiciary; managerial / executive positions; sportsmen; journalists
Remarks:
  • - Domestic servants are excluded from the general rules on individual dismissals. However, they are covered by the rules on discriminatory dismissal and by a national collective agreement adopted in 2007 that provides for rules on notice periods and end of service compensation (TFR).

    - In general, public servants are covered by ordinary legislation governing employees but specific exceptions may apply. For some categories of public servants (e.g. magistrates, university teachers, top civil servants) and members of the armed forces and police, there are specific rules (public servant's regime, 'regime pubblicistico'").

    - Executives (dirigenti) are the top managerial employees: they are generally governed by the same rules of ordinary employees but major exceptions apply (e.g. dismissal, working time). "Managers and directors are not covered by the legislation as employees and therefore do not have the same status, nor the same protection against dismissal." (EU Commission study on Termination of Employment)

Types of employment contracts - 2017    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Probationary period is governed by collective agreement. However there is a statutory limit of 6 months: art. 10 Act 604/1966.

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • FTC regulated: Yes
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation on first FTC
    Remarks:
    • Art. 10 Leg. Decree 368/2001 provides for specific exceptions:
      (in particular to the tourism sector, agricultural sector, contracts concluded with executives (dirigenti): see. Art. 10 on the scope of application).

      New in 2014 : no need for objective and material reason to enter into a FTC. The number of employees with a FTC cannot exceed 20% of an employers' overall workforce.
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation
    Remarks:
    • Unlimited number of renewals is possible provided that the 36-month maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs is complied with and an interruption between the previous FTC expiring and a new one starting occurs (interruptions must be for at least 10 days if the previous FTC with the same employee was shorter than 6 months; 20 days for longer previous FTCs).

      New in 2014 : extension is allowed up to 5 times only for fixed-term contracts with an initial duration of less than 3 years: art. 4 Leg. Decree No. 368 of 2001 amended by Decree No. 34 of 2014.
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36 month(s)
    Remarks:
    • Art. 4 Leg. Decree 368/2001
      However, further renewal is possible if authorized by the Direzione Provinciale del Lavoro (art 4 bis of Leg. Decree 368/2001 as inserted by sec. 40, Act 247/2007).

      Under art. 5.4ter of Legislative Decree 368/2001, as amended by Law 92/2012, exception to the 36-month limit could be provided by national collective bargaining agreements.

      New in 2014 : Before 2014 the 36-month limitation only applied to successive FTC. In the case of a single FTC, no maximum duration was fixed by the law. After Decree 34/2014, the maximum duration of a FTC cannot exceed 36 months, save for exceptional cases (e.g. executives (dirigenti)).
  • % of workforce under FTC: 10.9 %
    Remarks:
    • Source: Eurostat, for the year 2016.
      The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
      Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
      "A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Substantive requirements for dismissals (justified and prohibited grounds) - 2017    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes
Remarks:
  • Art. 2 Act 604/1966 as amended by art. 1.37 of the Act 92/2012.

    As from Act 92/2012, reason of termination must be provided within the termination letter when the termination letter is served. Before Act 92/2012, the employee could request the justification within 15 days from the notification and the employer had 7 days to reply.


Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons
Remarks:
  • A dismissal is unfair unless it is for a just cause (no notice required) or a justified motive (notice required)
    See art. 1 and 3 Act 604/1966 and art. 2119 CC.

    Under art. 2119 C.C., 'just cause', in broad terms, requires very grave conduct which, when evaluated both subjectively and objectively, constitutes a serious and irremediable reason that prevents the parties to continue the employment relationship even on an interim basis. Whether such a breach has occurred would normally have to be determined ultimately by a court, taking all relevant factors into account.
    Justified reason is defined as a very significant breach of contract made on the side of the employee (subjective justified reason) as well as ; or reasons inherent in the production process, the organization of work or the smooth running of the undertaking (objective justified reason) (sec. 3, Act 604).


Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; filing a complaint against the employer; race; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; exercise of a right; parental leave; participation in a lawful strike; whistle blowing; adoption leave
Remarks:
  • Art. 15 and Art. 18 Act 300/1970, as amended by Law 92/2012 .
    Art. 3 Act 604/1966
    Art. 35 Legislative Decree 198/2006
    Art. 54 Legislative Decree 151/2001
    Art. 18 (1) Act 53/2000.


Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives; pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave; workers with family responsibilities
Remarks:
  • - Worker's representatives: there is a protection in art. 28 Act 300/1970 (workers' statute) which provides for specific simplified procedure for reinstatement following unfair dismissal. Specific remedies are also provided under Art. 18 Act 300/1970

    - Pregnant women, women on maternity leave, women with family responsibilities: see Legislative Decree 151 of 2001 on the protection of maternity and paternity. According to art. 54, dismissal is prohibited form the beginning of the pregnancy and up to a maximum of one year after the birth of the child.
    This prohibition does not however prevent an employer for dismissing a female employee in the event of serious misconduct (just cause) or in case of cessation of the activities of the employer.

    - Workers on paternity leave equally benefit from the protection against dismissal. (note however that under Italian law, a worker is entitled to paternity leave in limited situations: death of the mother, serious disability or abandonment by the mother or exclusive custody of the child to the father).

    - The prohibition of dismissal has also been extended to cover adoption leave (up until one year after the child has entered the family).


Procedural requirements for individual dismissals - 2017    

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Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks:
  • Art. 2 Act 604/1966: as amended by art. 1.37 of the Act 92/2012.

    As from Act 92/2012, reason of termination must be provided within the termination letter when the termination letter is served. Before Act 92/2012, the employee could request the justification within 15 days from the notification and the employer had 7 days to reply.

Notice period:
Remarks:
  • The length of the notice period is normally governed by collective agreements according to the employee's length of service and category.
    See also art. 2118 CC.

    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 2118 Civil Code

    Notification to the public administration: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Since 2012, pursuant to Art.7, Law 604/1966 as amended by Art. 1.40 of Act 92/2012, employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production work unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located, have to notify public bodies (Direzione Territoriale del Lavoro) when a dismissal for justified objective reason is contemplated, in order to attempt an amicable settlement between the parties.

      Art. 7.4 of decree 76/2013 specified that this does not apply to dismissal connected to absence for work because of illness or injury or to other similar cases.

    Notification to workers' representatives: No

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons (redundancy, retrenchment) - 2017    

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    Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned):
    Over a period of 120 days, in undertakings with 15 or more employees, concerning at least 5 employees in a single unit of production or at least 5 employees in several units belonging to a single employer within one province.

    Remarks:
    • Art. 24, Act 223/1991 as amended by Art. 1.44, 1.45, 1.46 of Act 92/2012

      Before Act 92/2012, any infringement of the collective dismissal procedure or failure to comply with the priority rules described below was sanctioned with reinstatement of the relevant employee(s) and payment of damages for the period between the dismissal and the reinstatement but not less than five months' pay. Under Act 92/2012 (i) infringement of the procedure (e.g. failure to provide complete information to workers' representatives; failure to timely notify public bodies) is sanctioned with an indemnity of between 12 and 24 months' salary to be paid to any concerned employee; (ii) failure to comply with the priority rules described below is now sanctioned with reinstatement of the relevant employee(s) and the payment of damages for the period between the dismissal and the reinstatement for a maximums of 12 months' salary.

      Alternatively, when reinstatement is refused by the employee: payment of damages amounting to 15 months' pay.

      With the Legislative decree 23/2015 the obligation of the employer to reinstate the worker has been abolished for the workers who have an open ended contract. The employer is obliged to compensate the worker the amount which increases with the years of service.

    Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 4 read together with art. 24 Act 223/1991 as amended by Art. 1.44, 1.45, 1.46 of Act 92/2012

    Notification to the public administration: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 4 and the art. 24 of the Act 223/1991 as amended by articles 1.44 1.45 and 1.46 of the Act 92/2012 provide for the seven days time frame between the moment of the communication on termination to the worker and the moment of the communication on termination to the public administration and workers representatives. Prior to 2012 reform this communication (to the workers from one side and to the workers representatives and public administration from the other side) had to be made in the same moment.
      The communication has to have attached the list of the workers whose employment is terminated, residence of the workers, qualifications, age, family responsibilities, as well as the description based on which the employer selected the workers whose employment is terminated.

    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 4 and the art. 24 of the Act 223/1991 as amended by articles 1.44 1.45 and 1.46 of the Act 92/2012 provide for the seven days time frame between the moment of the communication on termination to the worker and the moment of the communication on termination to the public administration and workers representatives. Prior to 2012 reform this communication ( to the workers from one side and to the workers representatives and public administration from the other side) had to be made in the same moment.
      The communication has to have attached the list of the workers whose employment is terminated, residence of the workers, qualifications, age, family responsibilities, as well as the description based on which the employer selected the workers whose employment is terminated.

      Sanctions for collective dismissal

      Art. 5. 3 of the act 223/ 91 as amended by the art. 1.46 of the Act 92/2012

      If the employer does not respect the obligation to inform the workers on the termination in the written form the sanctions are prescribed in the art. 18.1 of the Statute 300/70 as modified by the art. 1. 42 of the Act 82/2012. These are: reinstatement of the worker, compensation of damages occurred as a result of the dismissal, pending reinstatement (with a minimum of 5 months' pay), retirement contributions ( contibuti prevendenziali e asistenziali).

      If the employer did not respect the procedures prescribed by the art. 4. 12 of the act 223/1991 the sanction applicable is provided by the art. 18.7 of the Statute 300/70 as modified by the art. 1. 42 of the Act 82/2012. In this case the judge will order the employer to pay the employee an indemnity of between 12 and 24 months' salary.

      If the priority rules for the collective dismissal have been violated the sanction applicable is prescribed in art. 18.4 of the Statute 300/70 as modified by the art. 1. 42 of the act 82/2012 and the judge will award reinstatement and compensation up to 12 months minus aliunde perceptum and aliunde percipiendum.

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 5 (1) read together with art. 24 Act 223/1991 as amended by Art. 1.44, 1.45, 1.46 of Act 92/2012 : Mandatory list of 3 criteria to be considered unless provided otherwise in collective agreement: 1) family responsibilities, 2) job tenure, 3) technical, production-related and organizational requirements. But no specified priority between those criteria.

    Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 4(4) read together with Art. 24 Act 223/1991 as amended by Art. 1.44, 1.45, 1.46 of Act 92/2012: refers to alternatives to redundancy and measures to mitigate the social effects of redundancy as part of the elements to be communicated to the trade union representatives for the purpose of consultation.
      Art. 4 (5) as modified by art. 1 Act (D. Leg.) 151/1997, read together with art. 24 Act 223/1991 as amended by Art. 1.44, 1.45, 1.46 of Act 92/2012: mandatory examination of the possibility to adopt social measures (i.e retraining).
      However, no formal adoption of a social plan is required.

    Priority rules for re-employment: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 8 Act 223/1991 referring to art 15 § 6 Act 264/1949.
      Preferential rehiring during six months. Before 2002 this period was one year.

    Severance pay and redundancy payment - 2017    

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    Notes / Remarks
    No severance pay as such. However, there is an end-of-employment contract indemnity (TFR: Trattamento di fine rapporto: sec. 2120 CC) constituted by a certain amount of salary set aside each month to be paid to each employee upon termination of the employment contract.
    It is calculated according to the formula of a year's overall salary divided by 13.5, plus 1.5 per cent for each year of service plus compensation for inflation. It is payable whenever an employment contract ends for whatever reason, and is based on length of service with the company.
    The TFR payment scheme has been reformed. Since 2007, the employer's contributions for the TFR have been transferred to either a state pension fund or private complementary pension funds.

    Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - 2017    

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    Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

    Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):

    Remarks:
    • Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
      1) For employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located.

      See: art. 18 Act 300/1970 (workers' statute) as amended by Art 1.42 of Law 92/2012. Before this amendment, mandatory reinstatement of the dismissed employee and payment of damages for the period between the dismissal and the reinstatement but not less than five months' pay applied to all cases of unfair dismissal issued by employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production work unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located.

      In case of unfair dismissal (lack of justification, discriminatory, irregular procedures):
      Discriminatory dismissal or based on prohibited grounds - the applicable sanctions: Mandatory reinstatement of the dismissed employee and payment of damages for the period between dismissal and the reinstatement but not less than five months' pay. (Art. 18.1 of WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)
      Unlawful disciplinary dismissals: because of the lack of the elements which characterize the employers' claim (INSUSSISTENZA DEL FATTO CONTESTATO) or because the sanction applied could have been other than dismissal - the applicable sanctions: the court will order the employer to pay the employee an indemnity of not more than 12 months' salary + reinstatement. (Art. 18.4 of WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)
      Unlawful disciplinary dismissals because the judge finds that "other" elements which constitute disciplinary dismissal are lacking - the applicable sanctions: compensation 12 to 24 months salary. (Art. 18.5 of the WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)
      Because the procedure has been violated (*violation of the art. 2.2 of the Act 604/1966, of the art. 7 of the Act 604/1966; and art. 7 Statuto Lavoro)- the applicable sanctions: the judge confirms the termination of employment and awards compensation from 6 to 12 months salary, unless the judge if requested by the worker, verifies that the termination is not justified in which case art. 18.1 or 18.4 or 18.5 or 18.7 workers as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912 are applied. (art. 18.6 of the WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)
      Unlawful economical dismissal - the applicable sanctions: If the reason for the dismissal is manifestly in-existent, the judge can apply the sanction provided for in article 18.4 WS as amended b art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912. In other unlawful economical dismissal cases the judge can apply the sanction imposed by the art. 18.5 as amended by by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912. (Art. 18.7 of the WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)
      In the case of an unjustified dismissal because of physical or mental reasons related to the worker or because of the violation of the art. 2010.2 of the Civil Code the judge will apply the sanction provided for in the art. 18.4 WS 300/70 as amended by art. 1.42b of the Act 82/2912)

      2) For establishments with up to 15 employees (or 5 in the agricultural sector):
      * Rehiring (new contract) or if refused by the employer, compensation ranging from 2,5 to six months' pay (depending on job tenure and firm size), up to 10 months pay for more than 10 years of service, and up to 14 months for more than 20 years of service. However, when the dismissal is held to be discriminatory or however based on prohibited grounds or retaliatory or in any other case in which the law provides the dismissal to be held null and void mandatory reinstatement of the dismissed employee and payment of damages for the period between the dismissal and the reinstatement but not less than five months' pay would apply.
      See: art. 8 Act 604/1966.



    Reinstatement available: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Depending on the number of employees and/or the nature of irregularity affecting the dismissal as previously mentioned reinstatement can be either mandatory or optional: art. 18 Act 300/1970 Act (workers' statute) and art. 8 Act 604/1966.

    Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Conciliation is optional.

      Since 2012, pursuant to Art.7, Law 604/1966 as amended by Art. 1.40 of Act 92/2012,, employers with more than 15 employees (or five in the agricultural sector) in one production work unit, or more than one in the same municipality, and employers employing more than 60 workers wherever located, have to notify public bodies (Direzione Territoriale del Lavoro) when a dismissal for justified objective reason is contemplated, in order to attempt an amicable settlement between the parties.

      Art. 7.4 of decree 76/2013 specified that this does not apply to dismissal connected to absence for work because of illness or injury or to other similar cases.

      Conciliation is also promoted in the art.6.1 of the Legislative decree 23/2015. This decree is applicable to the workers who are hired with an employment contract of indefinite duration. If the worker opts for the conciliation the employer may offer him/her within 60 days from the dismissal an amount equal to one month’s salary for each year of service, and a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 18 months salaries, not subject to taxation.

    Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

    Remarks:
    • Art. 413 Civil Procedure Code.
      The labour court "giudice del lavoro" is integrated into the organization of the general civil court system, but follow special procedures.

    Existing arbitration: Yes

    Remarks:
    • Art. 412-ter Civil Procedure Code: arbitration must be foreseen by a collective agreement.

    Length of procedure: 23 month(s)

    Remarks:
    • As of 2004, for first instance cases
      (26 months for appeal cases)
      Source: http://www.corteappellocatania.it/formazione/051007/durata.pdf, p. 3
      citing the 2006 report of the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice : http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/cooperation/cepej/default_en.asp)

      Art. 6 of the act 604 /1966 as amended by the art. 32.1 of the Act 183/2010 as amended by the art. 1.38 of the Act 82/2012, states that any type of dismissal must be claimed from the employer within 60 (*this however does not have to be respected as you can go to the judge directly) days from the moment of the notification. In this case 60 days is a deadline for giving a notification to the employer that you would like to challenge his/hers decision on termination. From the moment the employer is notified, a new deadline starts within which a worker has to go to the judge (180 days deadline). Before 2012 reform the 180 days deadline was 270 days deadline.

    Source of additional information - 2017    

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    Links

    Profile of National Legislation covering Termination of Employment (no longer updated) »