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Spain
 


Source and scope of regulations - 2019    

References
  • Workers' Statute (Estatuto de los trabajadores) [ET], Royal Decree Law 2/2015, consolidated version (Real Decreto Legislativo 2/2015, de 23 de octubre, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley del Estatuto de los Trabajadores). Available only in Spanish.
    Date: 13 Nov 2015; view website » (view in NATLEX »)
  • Labour Procedure Law [LPL], Act No. 36/2011, (Ley 36/2011, de 10 de octubre, reguladora de la jurisdicción social). Available only in Spanish.
    Date: 11 Dec 2011; view website »
  • Law 11/2013 on measures to support the entrepeneur and promote growth and generate employment (Ley 11/2013, de 26 de julio, de medidas de apoyo al emprendedor y de estímulo del crecimiento y de la creación de empleo. Available only in Spanish.
    Date: 26 Jul 2013; view website » (view in NATLEX »)
Scope
Size of enterprises excluded (≤): none
Workers' categories excluded: civil/public servants; police; army; judiciary; prison personnel; state security corps; employer's family members; diplomats

Types of employment contracts - 2019    

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Maximum probationary (trial) period: 6 month(s)

Fixed term contract (FTC):
  • Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons
  • Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2
  • Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24 month(s)
  • % of workforce under FTC: 25.6 %

Substantive requirements for dismissals (justified and prohibited grounds) - 2019    

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Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons; worker's conduct; worker's capacity

Prohibited grounds: marital status; pregnancy; maternity leave; family responsibilities; race; colour; sex; sexual orientation; religion; political opinion; social origin; age; trade union membership and activities; disabilities; adoption leave; ethnic origin

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives

Procedural requirements for individual dismissals - 2019    

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Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Notice period:
    • tenure ≥ 6 months
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 9 months
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 2 years
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 4 years
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 5 years
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 10 years
      • 15 day(s).
    • tenure ≥ 20 years
      • 15 day(s).

    Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

    Notification to the public administration: No

    Notification to workers' representatives: No

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons (redundancy, retrenchment) - 2019    

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    Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned):
    Art 51(1) ET:
    Termination of employment contracts based on economic, technical, organizational or productive reasons within a 90 day period, affecting at least
    - ten workers, in enterprises that employ fewer than 100 workers;
    - 10 per cent of the number of workers in enterprises that employ between 100 and 300 workers; or
    - 30 workers in enterprises that employ more than 300 workers.
    Termination of employment contracts of the undertaking's entire workforce is also considered a collective dismissal provided that the number of workers affected is more than 5.

    Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

    Notification to the public administration: Yes

    Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

    Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

    Approval by workers' representatives: No

    Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): Yes

    Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): Yes

    Priority rules for re-employment: No

    Severance pay and redundancy payment - 2019    

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    Severance pay:
    • tenure ≥ 6 months: 10 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 9 months: 15 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 1 year: 20 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 2 years: 40 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 4 years: 80 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 5 years: 100 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 10 years: 200 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 20 years: 12 month(s)
    Redundancy payment:
    • tenure ≥ 6 months: 10 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 9 months: 15 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 1 year: 20 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 2 years: 40 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 4 years: 80 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 5 years: 100 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 10 years: 200 day(s)
    • tenure ≥ 20 years: 12 month(s)

    Notes / Remarks
    1) Dismissal for an objective reason (including individual and collective dismissals for economic reasons): severance pay = 20 days' wages per year of service up to a maximum of 12 month's wages.
    2) Disciplinary dismissal: no severance pay.
    3) Termination of a fixed-term contract (which is not concluded for training or substitution purposes): 12 days' wages per year of service.

    Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - 2019    

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    Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

    Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):

    Reinstatement available: Yes

    Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

    Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

    Existing arbitration: Yes

    Source of additional information - 2019    

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    Links

    Use of International Law by Domestic Courts - ITC-ILO Compendium »
    Under 'Compendium of Court Decisions' in left-hand side bar, click on 'Decisions by Subject'. Then under 'Contract of employment: working conditions and termination', click on 'Dismissal'. See cases Nos. 46 and 47.

    ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations - Comments on the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, No. 158 (from 1990) »