Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Turkey - 2019
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- Labour Act [LA], No. 4857 of 22 May 2003.
[Note that this Act was amended by several acts (No. 5838 2009, Act No. 5763 of 2008, Act No. 5754 of 2008, Act No. 5538 of 2006, Act No. 5378 of 2005, Act No. 4884 of 2003, see NATLEX).
Date: 18 Feb 2009 (view in NATLEX »)
- Law on Trade Unions and Collective Labour Agreements No.6356 (replacing Laws No. 2821 and No.2822)
Date: 18 Oct 2012; view website » (view in NATLEX »)
- Code of Obligations of 19 December 2012
Date: 20 Dec 2012 (view in NATLEX »)
- Law on Labor Courts No. 7036
Date: 25 Oct 2017
Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No
Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
- Termination not justified by a valid reason (employee falling within the scope of the job security provision (Art. 18 LA): reinstatement is the remedy, compensation shall be not less than 4 month's wages and not more than 8 month's wages if the employer does not respect the re-employment order and do not re-employ the dismissed employee (+ additional indemnity of up to 4 months for the period of time between notice of termination and the court ruling + severance pay);
- Abusive termination (abuse of the right to terminate with notice employees not covered by the job security provision): 3 times the wages of the notice period(max. 24 weeks for workers with more than 3 years' seniority);
- Discriminatory dismissal (violation of the general principle of equal treatment in terminating the employment relationship): compensation shall be up to 4 month's wages;
- Termination due to trade union membership or participation in trade union's activities: see Art. 25 Law No. 6356 on Trade Unions and Collective Agreements.
- - Termination not justified by a valid reason: Art. 21 LA
- Abusive termination: Art. 17 LA
- Discriminatory dismissal: Art. 5 LA
- Termination due to trade union membership or participation in trade union's activities: Art. 25 of Law No. 6356 on Trade Unions and Collective Agreements (2012).
In addition in the event of illegal breaking of the contract (summary dismissal), employees covered by the job security provision are entitled to the same compensation as for termination not justified by a valid reasons (art. 25 LA) while employees excluded from the job security provision will not be entitled to reinstatement but only to compensation for the notice period not observed.
Reinstatement available: Yes
- Art. 21 LA: If the court or the arbitrator concludes that termination is not justified by a valid reasons, the employer shall reinstate the employee. Reinstatement is only available (and mandatory) for employees covered by the job security provision. In practice, the employer has the right to choose between reinstatement and compensation. Accordingly, after the court’s decision on the invalidity of the termination, if the employer does not re-employ the worker within one month, the employer becomes liable to pay a compensation equal to minimum four and maximum eight months of wage to worker.
Discriminatory dismissal can give right to reinstatement for employees covered by the job security provision. Art 18 LA clearly provides that the following issues shall not constitute a valid reason for termination namely: "race, color, sex, marital status,…and similar reasons”. Besides, according to the Law No 6356, dismissal based on trade union membership or activities do give right to reinstatement even if the worker is not covered by the job security provision of the LA. (Art 25 (5)).
Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes
Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court
- Art. 20 LA: The employee who alleges that no reason was given for the termination of his employment contract or who considers that the reasons shown were not valid shall be entitled to lodge a complaint against that termination before the Labour Court within one month of receiving the notice of termination.
See also the Labour Court Act (No. 5521 of 1950) which establishes jurisdiction of the labour courts over individual disputes arising from the individual employment contracts or any claims under the Labour Act.
Existing arbitration: Yes
- According to Art. 20 LA which applies to employees covered by the job security provision, the parties can refer the dispute concerning unjustified termination to private arbitration if they so agree.
Length of procedure:
- No specific period stipulated under the amended Art. 20 LA (amended by Law No. 7036 of 2017). It is just stipulated under Art 20 that the case shall be concluded promptly.