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Romania - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints

Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Romania - 2017    

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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
If the dismissal was not well-founded or illegal, the court must invalidate it and order the employer to pay an indemnity equal to the indexed, increased or updated wages and the other entitlements the employee would have otherwise benefited from.

  • Art. 80(1) (former art. 78(1)) LC.
    Note that art. 78 (former art. 76) LC stipulates that a dismissal decision infringing the procedure provided for in the law shall be null and void.

Reinstatement available: Yes

  • Art. 80(2) (former Art. 78.2) LC provides that the court may order reinstatement only if expressly requested by the employee.
    The Act No. 40/2011 added a new paragraph to art. 80 LC which reads as follows: "(3) In the case in which the worker does not demand restoring the situation before the redundancy act was issued, the individual employment contract shall rightfully end at the date the court decision remains definitive and irrevocable".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

  • On the first hearing, the court is obliged to attempt to settle the dispute by conciliation (art. 76 of the Law no. 168/1999 regarding labour disputes resolution).

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

  • Based on Law No. 304/2004, specialised sections or panels for settling cases regarding labour disputes and social insurance were established at the tribunals and the courts of appeal.
    (The jurisdiction of those sections/panels cover dismissal cases - see art. 281 LC and Act No. 168/1999 on labour disputes resolutions)

Existing arbitration: No

  • The Law no. 168/1999 regarding labour disputes resolution only provides for arbitration as a mean of settlement of conflicts of interests (which do not cover dismissal cases). Dismissal cases which fall within the category of conflicts of rights are settled by the courts.

Length of procedure: 10 day(s) (statutory)

  • Cases regarding labour disputes falling within the category of conflicts of rights (which cover dismissal cases) must be adjudicated according to urgent proceedings which may not exceed 10 days. Appeals against the court's decision can be lodged within 10 days form the date of the communication of the decision to the parties (arts. 74 and 80 of the Law No. 168/1999 regarding labour disputes resolution)