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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Philippines

Philippines - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints


Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Philippines - 2013    

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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Dismissal without an authorized or just cause: Compensation in lieu of reinstatement is not a statutory remedy. The employee shall be entitled to reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and other privileges and full back wages, inclusive of allowances, and other benefits or their monetary equivalent computed from the time the compensation was not paid up to the time of actual reinstatement (art. 279 LC).

Remarks:
  • Dismissal without a just or authorized cause (unfair dismissal): reinstatement. No compensation in lieu of reinstatement.

    Note that if a dismissal is for a just or authorized cause but the employer failed to comply with the procedural requirement, the dismissal should be upheld. The National Labour Relations Commission has held that while the procedural infirmity cannot be cured, it should not invalidate the dismissal. However, the employer should be held liable for nominal damages for non-compliance with the procedural requirements of due process. (Agabon et al. v. National Labour Relations Commission et al., G.R. No. 158693, November 17, 2004)

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 279 LC: "An employee who is unjustly dismissed from work shall be entitled to reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and other privileges and to his full backwages inclusive of allowance, and to his other benefits or their monetary equivalent computed from the time his compensation was withheld from him up to the time of his actual reinstatement".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • No preliminary mandatory conciliation as such.
    However, art. 222 of the LC provides that "the Labour Arbiter shall exert all efforts towards the amicable settlement of a labour dispute within his jurisdiction on or before the first hearing. The same rule shall apply to the Commission in the exercise of its original jurisdiction".

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): administrative body

Remarks:
  • The Labour Arbiters of the National Labour Relations Commission have original and exclusive jurisdiction over termination disputes.
    Art. 217 b) LC: The National Labour Relations Commission has exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all cases decided by Labour Arbiters.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 217 a) LC:
    The Labour Arbiters of the National Labour Relations Commission have original and exclusive jurisdiction over termination disputes.
    Art. 217 b) LC: The National Labour Relations Commission has exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all cases decided by Labour Arbiters.

Length of procedure: 20 day(s) (statutory)

Remarks:
  • Omnibus Implementing Rules, Rule XIV, sec. 8: Cases involving the dismissal of a worker shall be decided by the Labour Arbiter within 20 working days from the date of submission of such cases for decision.

    For non-dismissal labour disputes see: Art. 217a) LC: the Labour Arbiters shall hear and decide the dispute, within thirty calendar days after its submission.