Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of - 2017
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- Labour Relations Act [LRA], 2005 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 62/2005), last amended in 2015 with Law No 72/2015
The link provided is in Macedonian, consolidated version.
Date: 2015; view website »
- Law on peaceful resolution of labour law disputes, 4 July 2007 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 87/2007) [in Macedonian only]
Date: 04 Jul 2007; view website »
Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes
- Art. 102.5 LRA, with the 2012 amendment has been renumbered as Art. 102.4 LRA and modified to state that when the court establishes that the dismissal was unlawful and it is unacceptable for the employee to be reinstated, the court, at the employee's request, shall specify the date of termination of employment and will oblige the employer to pay wages in accordance with paragraph 2 of the same article. Art. 102.2 LRA, also brought with the 2012 amendment, states that in addition to the return to work, the employer shall pay the employee the gross salary which the employee would have taken if he/she was at work in accordance with the law, the collective agreement and employment contract, reduced by the amount of income that the employee has achieved on the basis of work after the termination of employment.
According to the previous regulation before the 2012 amendment, when the court would establish that the dismissal was unlawful and if the employee would find unacceptable the reinstatement, the court, at the employee's request, had to fix the date of termination of employment and award compensation depending on the employee's length of service, age, social status and family responsibilities.(previously art. 102(5)LRA).
Reinstatement available: Yes
- Art. 101(1) LRA: if the Court rules that the employment contract was unlawfully terminated, the employee must be reinstated if he/she so requests.
Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No
- No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
However, the LRA provides that in the event of dismissal with notice, the employee is authorised to file a complaint to the management body or to the employer within 8 days from receipt of the dismissal decision. The employer must reply to the complaint within 8 days, and during that period the execution of the dismissal decision is suspended. If the employee is not satisfied with the response he/she may initiate a dispute before the competent court (art. 93 LRA).
In case of termination of employment by the employer without a notice period (summary dismissal), the employee is entitled to complain to the management body or to the employer within 8 days from the receipt of the decision on the dismissal. The employer or the management body must give the response to the complain in the period of 8 days. In case the employee is not satisfied with the response, he/she has a right to initiate proceedings before the competent court within 15 days. In this case, while the procedure is ongoing, the execution of the dismissal decision is not suspended (Art. 91 LRA).
Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts
- Art. 91 and 93 LRA ("competent court").
Existing arbitration: Yes
- Art. 29 of the Law on peaceful resolution of labour disputes stipulates that individual labour disputes concerning termination of employment can be settled through arbitration. The arbitration award concerning an individual labour dispute shall be issued within 30 days form the opening of the hearings, which shall start within 3 days of the submission of the case (arts. 33 and 35 of the above-mentioned law).