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Estonia - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints


Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Estonia - 2017    

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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Art. 109 ECA. There are statutory amounts of compensation for unfair dismissal (in lieu of reintegration). However, it is worth noting that such amounts (3 or 6 months' wages depending on the categories of employees - see below) can be modified by the court or the labour dispute committee.

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
- In the event of an unlawful dismissal, if so requested by either party, the court or the labour dispute committee can terminate the employment contract as of the time when it would have been terminated in the event of the validity of the cancellation. In such cases, the employer shall pay 3 months' wages. This amount can however be modified by the court or the labour dispute committee, considering the circumstances of the dismissal and the interests of both parties.
- If the unlawful dismissal affects a pregnant woman or a woman entitled to maternity leave as well as an employee's representative, compensation in lieu of reinstatement shall be 6 months' wages. This amount can however be modified by the court or the committee.

When compensation is awarded, the employee can not claim the payment of loss wages from the date of the dismissal until the court's or the committee's decision.

Remarks:
  • Art. 109 ECA.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 107 ECA: If the court or the labour dispute committee establishes that termination of employment is void due to the absence of a legal basis or the non-conformity with law or nullified due to a conflict with the principle of good faith, it shall be deemed that the employment contract has not been terminated and therefore the employee is entitled to return to work. In such cases, the employee is entitled to the payment of loss wages form the time of the dismissal until the reintegration of his/her former position.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • art. 3
    1) If possible, a disagreement arising from the employment relationship of an
    employee and employer is resolved by agreement of the employee and
    employer through the mediation of a representative of employees or a directing
    body of a union or federation of employees.
    2) In order to resolve a disagreement, an employer, in co-ordination with a
    representative of employees or a directing body of a union or federation of
    employees, may establish a conciliation committee, the membership, competence
    and procedures of which are determined by agreement of the employer and the
    representative of employees or directing body of a union or federation of employees.
    3) Attempts to resolve disagreements by agreement do not deprive the parties of the
    right of recourse to labour dispute resolution bodies in order to resolve a labour
    dispute.
    4) Parties have the right of recourse to a labour dispute resolution body without the
    mediation of a representative of employees or a directing body of a union or
    federation of employees if they find that a labour dispute cannot be resolved by
    agreement.
    Settling of

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts; administrative body

Remarks:
  • There are no specialized labour courts in Estonia. All labour disputes lie within the jurisdiction of general courts. Disputes relating to termination of employment shall be heard by the court or a labour dispute committee (arts. 105-109 ECA).
    Labour dispute committees are independent, extra-judicial individual labour dispute resolution bodies which are established within the local branches of the Labour Inspectorate. They are composed of three members: the chairperson of the labour dispute committee and representatives of employees and employers (arts. 10-11 ILDRA)

Existing arbitration: No