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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Syrian Arab Republic

Syrian Arab Republic - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints


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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
1) Dismissal based on prohibited reasons:
If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate, it shall order compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year in service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 200 times the minimum wage.

2) Unfair disciplinary dismissal:
When the employer fails to prove that the worker committed any of the acts entailing summary dismissal referred to in art. 64, the worker is entitled to compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year of service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 150 times the minimum wage.

Remarks:
  • - Dismissal based on prohibited reasons: see art. 67
    - Unfair summary dismissal: see art. 65 LL

    See also art 208(d) which provides that: If the worker brings a dismissal dispute to court, the court shall, during litigation, order the employer to pay the worker 50% of his/her monthly wage, provided that such payment does not exceed the minimum wage payable for his occupation and does not exceed one year.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 209 LL: the employer shall be ordered to pay compensation to the worker unless he or she accepts to reinstate the worker.

    However, under art. 67 LL, if the unfair dismissal was based on prohibited grounds (i.e trade union activities, lodging a complaint against the employer, discriminatory grounds...), the court shall order the reinstatement of the worker in addition to his/her full wages for the entire interruption period.
    If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate because the employer refuses to reinstate the worker or the worker refuses to resume work, it shall order compensation in lieu of reinstatement except if the dismissal was connected to the worker's trade union activities or electoral activities.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
    However, under art. 208 LL, in the event of a dismissal dispute, the worker or the trade union concerned may, upon request of the worker, solicit mediation by the Directorate of Social Affairs and Labour, within ten days of being notified the dismissal or dismissal notice.
    The directorate acts as a mediator between the employer and the worker, and attempts to settle the dispute within no later than one month. If mediation fails, the worker is entitled to go to court.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Article 205 LL: A primary civil court shall be created in each governorate by decision of the Minister of Justice and shall consist of:
    1) A primary magistrate appointed by the Minister of Justice (chairman)
    2) A representative of the trade union association, appointed by the executive bureau of the GFTU (member).
    3) A representative of employers, appointed by the Federation of Chambers of Industry, Commerce, Tourism or Cooperatives (as the case may be) to examine labour disputes between workers and employers (member).

Existing arbitration: Yes

Notes / Remarks
In June 2013, the minimum wage in Syria is around SYP 9765 (around 152 USD) [Source: Doing Business - World Bank]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
1) Dismissal based on prohibited reasons:
If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate, it shall order compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year in service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 200 times the minimum wage.

2) Unfair disciplinary dismissal:
When the employer fails to prove that the worker committed any of the acts entailing summary dismissal referred to in art. 64, the worker is entitled to compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year of service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 150 times the minimum wage.

Remarks:
  • - Dismissal based on prohibited reasons: see art. 67
    - Unfair summary dismissal: see art. 65 LL

    See also art 208(d) which provides that: If the worker brings a dismissal dispute to court, the court shall, during litigation, order the employer to pay the worker 50% of his/her monthly wage, provided that such payment does not exceed the minimum wage payable for his occupation and does not exceed one year.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 209 LL: the employer shall be ordered to pay compensation to the worker unless he or she accepts to reinstate the worker.

    However, under art. 67 LL, if the unfair dismissal was based on prohibited grounds (i.e trade union activities, lodging a complaint against the employer, discriminatory grounds...), the court shall order the reinstatement of the worker in addition to his/her full wages for the entire interruption period.
    If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate because the employer refuses to reinstate the worker or the worker refuses to resume work, it shall order compensation in lieu of reinstatement except if the dismissal was connected to the worker's trade union activities or electoral activities.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
    However, under art. 208 LL, in the event of a dismissal dispute, the worker or the trade union concerned may, upon request of the worker, solicit mediation by the Directorate of Social Affairs and Labour, within ten days of being notified the dismissal or dismissal notice.
    The directorate acts as a mediator between the employer and the worker, and attempts to settle the dispute within no later than one month. If mediation fails, the worker is entitled to go to court.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Article 205 LL: A primary civil court shall be created in each governorate by decision of the Minister of Justice and shall consist of:
    1) A primary magistrate appointed by the Minister of Justice (chairman)
    2) A representative of the trade union association, appointed by the executive bureau of the GFTU (member).
    3) A representative of employers, appointed by the Federation of Chambers of Industry, Commerce, Tourism or Cooperatives (as the case may be) to examine labour disputes between workers and employers (member).

Existing arbitration: Yes

Notes / Remarks
In June 2012, the minimum wage in Syria is around SYP 9765 (around of 210 USD) [Source: Doing Business - World Bank]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
1) Dismissal based on prohibited reasons:
If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate, it shall order compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year in service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 200 times the minimum wage.

2) Unfair disciplinary dismissal:
When the employer fails to prove that the worker committed any of the acts entailing summary dismissal referred to in art. 64, the worker is entitled to compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year of service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 150 times the minimum wage.

Remarks:
  • - Dismissal based on prohibited reasons: see art. 67
    - Unfair summary dismissal: see art. 65 LL

    See also art 208(d) which provides that: If the worker brings a dismissal dispute to court, the court shall, during litigation, order the employer to pay the worker 50% of his/her monthly wage, provided that such payment does not exceed the minimum wage payable for his occupation and does not exceed one year.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 209 LL: the employer shall be ordered to pay compensation to the worker unless he or she accepts to reinstate the worker.

    However, under art. 67 LL, if the unfair dismissal was based on prohibited grounds (i.e trade union activities, lodging a complaint against the employer, discriminatory grounds...), the court shall order the reinstatement of the worker in addition to his/her full wages for the entire interruption period.
    If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate because the employer refuses to reinstate the worker or the worker refuses to resume work, it shall order compensation in lieu of reinstatement except if the dismissal was connected to the worker's trade union activities or electoral activities.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
    However, under art. 208 LL, in the event of a dismissal dispute, the worker or the trade union concerned may, upon request of the worker, solicit mediation by the Directorate of Social Affairs and Labour, within ten days of being notified the dismissal or dismissal notice.
    The directorate acts as a mediator between the employer and the worker, and attempts to settle the dispute within no later than one month. If mediation fails, the worker is entitled to go to court.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Article 205 LL: A primary civil court shall be created in each governorate by decision of the Minister of Justice and shall consist of:
    1) A primary magistrate appointed by the Minister of Justice (chairman)
    2) A representative of the trade union association, appointed by the executive bureau of the GFTU (member).
    3) A representative of employers, appointed by the Federation of Chambers of Industry, Commerce, Tourism or Cooperatives (as the case may be) to examine labour disputes between workers and employers (member).

Existing arbitration: Yes

Notes / Remarks
In June 2011, the minimum wage in Syria is around SYP 9765 (around 206 USD) [Source: Doing Business - World Bank]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
1) Dismissal based on prohibited reasons:
If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate, it shall order compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year in service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 200 times the minimum wage.

2) Unfair disciplinary dismissal:
When the employer fails to prove that the worker committed any of the acts entailing summary dismissal referred to in art. 64, the worker is entitled to compensation equal to 2 months' wages for each year of service, provided that the total amount does not exceed 150 times the minimum wage.

Remarks:
  • - Dismissal based on prohibited reasons: see art. 67
    - Unfair summary dismissal: see art. 65 LL

    See also art 208(d) which provides that: If the worker brings a dismissal dispute to court, the court shall, during litigation, order the employer to pay the worker 50% of his/her monthly wage, provided that such payment does not exceed the minimum wage payable for his occupation and does not exceed one year.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 209 LL: the employer shall be ordered to pay compensation to the worker unless he or she accepts to reinstate the worker.

    However, under art. 67 LL, if the unfair dismissal was based on prohibited grounds (i.e trade union activities, lodging a complaint against the employer, discriminatory grounds...), the court shall order the reinstatement of the worker in addition to his/her full wages for the entire interruption period.
    If the court deems that reinstatement is impossible, unpractical or inappropriate because the employer refuses to reinstate the worker or the worker refuses to resume work, it shall order compensation in lieu of reinstatement except if the dismissal was connected to the worker's trade union activities or electoral activities.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks:
  • No preliminary mandatory conciliation.
    However, under art. 208 LL, in the event of a dismissal dispute, the worker or the trade union concerned may, upon request of the worker, solicit mediation by the Directorate of Social Affairs and Labour, within ten days of being notified the dismissal or dismissal notice.
    The directorate acts as a mediator between the employer and the worker, and attempts to settle the dispute within no later than one month. If mediation fails, the worker is entitled to go to court.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Article 205 LL: A primary civil court shall be created in each governorate by decision of the Minister of Justice and shall consist of:
    1) A primary magistrate appointed by the Minister of Justice (chairman)
    2) A representative of the trade union association, appointed by the executive bureau of the GFTU (member).
    3) A representative of employers, appointed by the Federation of Chambers of Industry, Commerce, Tourism or Cooperatives (as the case may be) to examine labour disputes between workers and employers (member).

Existing arbitration: Yes

Notes / Remarks
In June 2010, the minimum wage in Syria is around SYP 6250 (around 134 USD) [Source: Doing Business - World Bank]