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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Montenegro

Montenegro - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints


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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • New in Dec. 2011: While there were no provisions on compensation in the 2008 LL, the amendments passed in December 2011 introduced new rules on compensation to be awarded to an employee in the event of unfair and unlawful dismissal (Art. 143(4)(5)(6) LL. (see below)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
In the event of unlawful or unjustified dismissal, the employee shall be entitled to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in addition to reinstatement, as follows:
- Compensation for financial damages amounts to the lost wages and other income the employee would have received if she/he had been employed and the contributions for mandatory social insurance. Earnings realized by the employee based on the employment contract upon termination of employment shall be deducted by the aforementioned amount for mandatory social insurance.
- In addition, the Court may award compensation for non-pecuniary damages if its rules that dismissal resulted in violation of the employee's rights of personality, honour, reputation and dignity, the amount of which shall be freely determined by the Court.

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Article 143d(3)(4)(5) LL. Those articles have been introduced into the Labour Law by the amendments adopted in December 2011.

Reinstatement available: Yes

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL
    New in Dec. 2011: While there was no statutory provision on reinstatement in the 2008 labour law, the 2011 amendments introduced reinstatement as the primary remedy for reinstatement. According to article 143d(3) LL "if the competent body determines that the dismissal was carried out without legal or justifiable grounds, whether prescribed by an act of the employer or agreed by the employer in the contract of employment, the employee shall be entitled to return to work, as well as to a compensation of financial and non-financial damage in a procedure prescribed by the law".

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL:
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

    Note: following the 2011 amendments, with regard to the competent court, the relevant article number has changed but not its content (with the exception of the inclusion in this article of the possibility to submit the dispute to the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes (see below under arbitration)

    With respect to the burden of the proof in dismissal disputes, there was no provision in the 2008 LL. The 2011 amendments introduced a new, the 2011 amendment introduced a new provision (art. 143d(2) according to which the burden of proving that the grounds of dismissal are justified and lawful rests on the employer.

Existing arbitration: Yes

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Art. 143d LL (new in December 2011):
    Within 15 days from the date of the receipt of the dismissal decision, an employee may challenge that decision before the competent. Alternatively, he/she can challenge it before the Agency for Amicable Settlement of Labour Disputes.

    [New in 2011: The possibility to settle dismissal disputes through the Agency for amicable settlement of labour disputes has been introduced in December 2011. In the 2008, there was only a reference in art. 121(1) LL to the possibility of submitting individual labour disputes to an arbitrator.]

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • There are no provisions on compensation in the LL.
    Application of the general civil law rules on damage compensation: reimbursement of actual loss of earnings between the dismissal and the ruling + any compensatory damages awarded by the Court

Reinstatement available: No

Remarks:
  • There is no provision on reinstatement in the LL.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143(6) LL provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
    decision.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Individual labour disputes can be settled through arbitration: see art. 121(1) LL and art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement. Length of arbitrage procedure is not specified. Art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement states that the decision reached through arbitration is obligatory for both parties.

Notes / Remarks
There are no provisions on remedies in the 2008 LL. The only provision on avenues for redress is art. 143(6) LL which provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
decision.

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • There are no provisions on compensation in the LL.
    Application of the general civil law rules on damage compensation: reimbursement of actual loss of earnings between the dismissal and the ruling + any compensatory damages awarded by the Court

Reinstatement available: No

Remarks:
  • There is no provision on reinstatement in the LL.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143(6) LL provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
    decision.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Individual labour disputes can be settled through arbitration: see art. 121(1) LL and art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement. Length of arbitrage procedure is not specified. Art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement states that the decision reached through arbitration is obligatory for both parties.

Notes / Remarks
There are no provisions on remedies in the 2008 LL. The only provision on avenues for redress is art. 143(6) LL which provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
decision.

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks:
  • There are no provisions on compensation in the LL.
    Application of the general civil law rules on damage compensation: reimbursement of actual loss of earnings between the dismissal and the ruling + any compensatory damages awarded by the Court

Reinstatement available: No

Remarks:
  • There is no provision on reinstatement in the LL.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks:
  • Art. 143(6) LL provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
    decision.
    There are no specialised labour courts in Montenegro; labour disputes are heard by ordinary courts.

Existing arbitration: Yes

Remarks:
  • Individual labour disputes can be settled through arbitration: see art. 121(1) LL and art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement. Length of arbitrage procedure is not specified. Art. 69 of the General Collective Agreement states that the decision reached through arbitration is obligatory for both parties.

Notes / Remarks
There are no provisions on remedies in the 2008 LL. The only provision on avenues for redress is art. 143(6) LL which provides that the employee who is not satisfied with dismissal decision shall be entitled to initiate a dispute before a competent court for the protection of his rights within 15 days from the day of submission of the
decision.