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Denmark - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints

Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints - Denmark - 2017    

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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

  • Sec. 2b (1), (2) ESEA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
For employees having worked for at least 12 months, compensation shall not exceed the salary of the employee corresponding to half of the period of notice; it may amount up to 3 months' salary for employees over 30 years of age, 4 months' salary for employees with at least 10 years of service; 6 months' salary for employees with at least 15 years of service.

  • Sec. 2b (1), (2) ESEA

Reinstatement available: Yes

  • No provision on reinstatement in the ESEA.
    However the General Agreement, 1973 concluded by the Danish Employers' Confederation and the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions provides for reinstatement.

    See also: OECD employment protection legislation database, 2013, Denmark: "reinstatement orders are possible but rare" (available at:

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

  • Case management in the Danish Labour Court
    by Managing Judge J°rn Andersen, Head of Secretariate, 19.9.04, available at:

    Summary of the Danish Labour Court and Labour administration system, available at:

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts; labour court

  • The Labour Courts have jurisdiction over cases involving workers covered by a collective agreement whereas ordinary Courts have jurisdiction over dismissal disputes involving those not covered by a collective agreement.

    In addition, special dismissal bodies have been set up by social partners for unfair dismissal cases for parties to collective agreements. Their decision can be appealed to ordinary courts.
    See Danielle Venn (2009), "Legislation, collective bargaining and enforcement: Updating the OECD employment protection indicators", p. 30. Available at:

Existing arbitration: Yes

  • Regulated by Arbitration Act No. 553 of 24 June 2005 as last amended in 2008.