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> GOVERNANCE - home > Employment protection legislation database - EPLex > Germany

Germany - Avenues for redress (penalties, remedies) and litigation procedure for individual complaints


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Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2013).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 2.6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2016: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 6.5 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2016, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2017, p. 47 and 89.

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 53.1 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2016 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2016, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2017 p. 45 and 47. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2013).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 2.6 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2016: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 6.5 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2016, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2017, p. 47 and 89.

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 53.1 %

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Figure for 2016 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2016, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2017 p. 45 and 47. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2013).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 2.6 month(s)

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Figures for 2015: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 6 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2016, p. 48 and 90.

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 53.3 %

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Figure for 2015 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2015, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2016 p. 34 and 38. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2013).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 2.7 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2014: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 5.4 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2015, p. 48 and 90.

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 52.6 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2014 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2014, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2015 p. 46 and 48. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2013).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 2.7 month(s)

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Figures for 2013: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 5.7 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, p. 46 and 856

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 52.6 %

NOTE: This information has changed since the previous period covered.
Remarks:
  • Figure for 2013 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2013, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2014 p. 44 and 46. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2008).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 14.2 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2008: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance) for dismissal cases in Germany.
    The average duration of appeal proceedings is 5.7 months

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, p. 86 (part. 5.3.3, items 20 and 2)

    https://www-ec.destatis.de/csp/shop/sfg/bpm.html.cms.cBroker.cls?cmspath=struktur,vollanzeige.csp&ID=1023242

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 36.2 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2008 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2009 p. 20. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2008).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 14.3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2007: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance and appeal) for dismissal cases.

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2007, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, p. 20.

    https://www-ec.destatis.de/csp/shop/sfg/bpm.html.cms.cBroker.cls?cmspath=struktur,vollanzeige.csp&ID=1023242

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 36.2 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2008 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2009 p. 20. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2008).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 14.3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2007: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance and appeal) for dismissal cases.

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2007, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, p. 20.

    https://www-ec.destatis.de/csp/shop/sfg/bpm.html.cms.cBroker.cls?cmspath=struktur,vollanzeige.csp&ID=1023242

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 36.2 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2008 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2009 p. 20. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".

+ show references

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
Compensation shall not exceed 12 months' wages.
2 exceptions:
- up to 15 month's wages for workers aged over 50 and with at least 15 years of service,
- up to 18 months for workers aged over 55 and with at least 20 years of service

Remarks:
  • Sec. 10 PADA

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks:
  • If the Court finds that the dismissal lacks social justification, it will declare it void and therefore the employment relationship continues. However, it can be dissolved upon request of either party when continuation of employment is no longer tolerable. In such cases, the Court will award compensation (sec. 9 PADA).

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks:
  • Sec. 54 (1) PADA: preliminary conciliation before the Labour Court should take place within two weeks after the application has been filed.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks:
  • Sec. 4 PADA and sec. 2 of the Federal Labour Court Act , 1953 (as last amended in 2008).

Existing arbitration: No

Length of procedure: 14.3 month(s)

Remarks:
  • Figures for 2007: they correspond to the average total length of procedure before the States (Länder) Labour Courts (first instance and appeal) for dismissal cases.

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2007, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, p. 20.

    https://www-ec.destatis.de/csp/shop/sfg/bpm.html.cms.cBroker.cls?cmspath=struktur,vollanzeige.csp&ID=1023242

% of dismissals out of the total number of disputes: 34.3 %

Remarks:
  • Figure for 2008 = % of dismissal cases out of all labour disputes in Germany (States Labour Courts).

    Source:
    Statistiches Bundesamt, destatis (Federal Statistic Office), Rechtspflege - Arbeitsgerichte 2008, Fachserie 10 Reihe 2.8, 2009 p. 20. Link provided below under "scope of additional information".